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641 Battle of Nihawand. Conquest of Alexandria in Egypt.
642 Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat.
643 Conquest of Azerbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia).
644 Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Martyrdom
of Hazrat Umar. Hazrat Usman becomes the Caliph.
645 Campaigns in Fats.
646 Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.
647 Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.
648 Campaigns against the Byzantines.
651 Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
652 Discontentment (anger) and disaffection against the rule of Hazrat Usman
656 Martyrdom of Hazrat Usman . Hazrat Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel
657 Hazrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin. Arbitration
proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal.
658 Battle of Nahrawan.
659 Conquest of Egypt by Hazrat Mu'awiyah
660 Hazrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Hazrat Mu'awiyah. Hazrat Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus.
661 Martyrdom of Hazrat Ali. Accession of Hazrat Hasan and his abdication.
Hazrat Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph.
662 Khawarij revolts.
666 Raid of Sicily.
670 Advance in North Africa. Uqba bin Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of
672 Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.
674 The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
677 Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege (blockade) of Constantinople.
680 Death of Hazrat Mu'awiyah . Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala and
martyrdom of Hazrat Hussain.
682 In North Africa Uqba bin Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The
Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to Burqa.
683 Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II.
684 Abdullah bin Zubair declares himself as the Caliph at Makkah. Marwan I becomes the Caliph'
at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat.
685 Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada.
686 Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.
687 Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah bin Zubair. Mukhtar killed.
691 Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.
692 The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah bin Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph.
695 Khawarij revolts in Jazirah and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and