District Lahore Profile General Information

The origin of Lahore can be traced back somewherebetween 1 st and 7 th centuries A.D. It is, however, inferred by historiansthat Lahore was actually founded by Loh e son of Rama, characterizedas the Hindu god in Ramayana. According to Sir Robert Montgomery, Lahore rose to importance between 2 ndand 4 th centuries. According to the Greek geographer, Ptolemy, Lahore was founded somewhere at the endof the 1 st century. According to the book ood-e-Aalamahore appeared as a townin 882 AD.
The people ofLahore, when they want to emphasize the uniquenessof their town say "Lahore is Lahore". Thetraditional capital of Punjab for a thousand years,it had been the cultural center of Northern India extending from Peshawar to New Delhi. This preeminentposition it holds in Pakistan as well. Lahore is the city of poets,artists and the center of film industry. It has the largest number ofeducational institutions in the country and some of the finest gardens in thecontinent.

The city as we know it today, reached its peak of glory during the Moghulrulers, especially in the reign of Akbar the Great, who made it his capital.His son, Jehangir, is buried in its outskirts and his mausoleum is one of theplaces frequented by tourists and Lahorites alike. Close by is the mausoleum ofthe famous Moghul Empress, Nur Jehan, who is known for introducing the roseplant and for initiating several cultural movements in the Sub-Continent.

Akbar theGreat held his Court In Lahore for 14 years from 1584 to 1598, and built theLahore Fort, as well as the city walls which had 12 gates. Some of these stillsurvive. Jehangir and Shah Jehan, the builders of the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Shalamar Gardens in Srinagar and Lahore, built palaces andtombs. The last great Moghul Emperor, Aurangzeb (1838 - 1707) built Lahore's most famousmonument, the great Badshahi Mosque. At that time the river Ravi, which now lies a fewmiles away from Lahore, touched the rampartsof the Fort and the Mosque. A stream still flaws there and is known asthe"Old River". The Sikhsruled it in the 18th and 19th centuries, and though it was their capital, theyhad a habit of damaging the Muslim monuments and took little interest ingardens. It is said that they took enough marble from the Moghul monuments of Lahore to build the Golden Temple at Amratsar twiceover. Most of the gems that decorated the palaces and the forts were also takenout.
Britishwere responsible for the desecration of many of Lahore's tombs andmonuments. At one stage the Attorney General maintained an office at the ShahChiragh Mosque, dak bungalows were built for the weekends at Shalamar Gardens. Anarkali's tomb wasused as an office and later consecrated as a place of worship called St.Adrew's Church. It can also be conjectured that Lahore was an industrialcenter in the Moghul period. The famous guns which lie in front of the Central Museum and other places weremolded in the foundries of Lahore. Their perfectionshows that the industry was quite advanced. Within the walled city you may comeacross old Havelis or the spacious houses of the rich, which give you aninkling of the style of the rich and notables in the Moghul reign. Efforts arebeing made to preserve some of the buildings, along with their environments,but a great deal needs to be done to maintain them for posterity.

The British during their reign (1849 -1947) compensated
Lahore, by harmoniouslycombining Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles of architecture. Victorianheritage is only next to Mughal monuments. The GPO and YMCA buildings built tocommemorate the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria - an event marked bythe construction of clock towers and monuments all over India. They built someimportant buildings, like the High Court. the Government College, the Museums,the National College of Arts, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the PunjabUniversity (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. At one end of The Mallstands the University - perhaps the largest center of education in Asia. The city has built anew Campus in the quieter environments on the Canal Bank, but the oldUniversity buildings are still functioning.

Students from all over
Pakistan come here to receiveeducation. Their activities completely over shadow other aspects of thecultural life. Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque beyond the audience hall was for theexclusive use of royal ladies carved from marble having the luster of pearls.Nearby "Naulakha", a marble pavilion is inlaid with floral motifs andprecious gems. Sheesh Mahal (Palace of Mirrors) built in 1631 is themost richly decorated building inside Lahore Fort. it is named for theelaborate mosaic of convex mirrors set in Stucco work tracery and the gildedinterior. Built by emperor Shah Jehan, for his empress and his harem, frettedmarble work screens hiding the occupants from view. Lahore offers somedelightful picnic spots. Tourists can find shady groves and green carpets at Shalamar Gardens, Jehangir's Tomb andthe Jinnah Gardens, the Jallo Park the newly built lqbal Park and Changa Manga Forests. Boats can be hiredat the river Ravi, or at Baradari, another of the river-sidepleasure-houses built by the Mughals and an ideal place for relaxation
Old Names Of
Samandpal Nagiri

DerivationOf Name :
Lohawar is probablycorrect form of its original name. This name is in conformity with “Loh-Kot”, aname mentioned in the Rajput Chronicles meaning “Fort of Loh”.
Lahore Through The Ages
1000 BC
Foundation of Lahore by Prince Loh, Son of Rama Chandra
630 AD
A Great Brahmanb City according to Hieun Tsang
800~900 AD
Under Brahmanb rule
975 AD
Subuktgin, father of Mahmood Ghaznavi of Ghazni invades Lahore and defeats Raja Jaipal
1021 AD
Mahmood Ghaznavi Captures the City
1043 AD
Hindu Rajas of Northern India besiege Lahore for seven
1039~1099 AD
Golden Rule of Ghaznavids under Zahir-ud-Din Ibrahim
1157~1186 AD
Capital of Ghaznavids under twelfth Ghaznavid Emperor
1186~1206 AD
Shahab-ud-Din Ghauri conquers Lahore and brings it under the Ghorid Empire
1241~1310 D
The Mongols ransack Lahore several times
1398 AD
Tamerlane plunders Lahore
Lahore plays almost no role. The Khilji, Tughlaq, Syed and Lodhi dynasties succeed one another in Delhi till Babur captures it in 1524 and lays foundations of the Moghul Empire
1524 AD
Babur captures Lahore
1554 AD
Babar's son Humayun returns in triumph after 14 years of exile
1606 AD
Emperor Jehangir besieges Lahore
1622 AD
Jehangir fixes his court in Lahore
1629 AD
Shahjehan proclaimed emperor at Lahore
Lahore enjoys peace and prosperity under Ali Mardan and Wazir Khan, Governors of Emperor Shahjehan
1659 AD
Emperor Aurangzeb enters Lahore
1712 AD
Aurangzeb's death at Lahore
1739 AD
Nadir Shah Durrani, the King of Persia captures Lahore
1748~1767 AD
Nadir's successor, Ahmad Shah Abdali invades Lahore eight times
1764~1794 AD
Three Sikh Chiefs Lahna Singh, Sobha Singh and Gujjer Singh occupy Lahore
1799~1839 AD
Lahore under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab
1839~1848 AD
Successors of Ranjit Singh
Annexation of the Punjab by the British brings Lahore under their control
1857 AD
East India Company transfers its powers to the British crown and Lahore becomes part of the British Empire
British rule
1947 AD
Creation of Pakistan
Lahore owes much to the Mughal Princes,for it was here that Shah Jehan made the Shalimar Gardens, Aurangzeb constructed the worldfamous Badshahi Mosque, and it is here that the emperor Jehangir and hisbeloved wife Nur Jehand are buried. The massively fortified walls of the LahoreFort speak eloquently of the days gone by. Its origin is not known. However,Mughal Emperor Akbar gave it a face-lift and made it one of the most splendidforts in the Sub-Continent. One can almost envision the royal Princes andPrincesses moving within the calm splendor of its magnificent walls. The famousAnarkali Bazaar (named after the legendary Anarkali) is almost adjacent to thishistorical Lahore Museum, whose collection of coins andcrafts unveil the secrets of centuries.
The British during theirreign (1849-1947) combined Mughal, Gothic and Colonial architecture withVictorian style and made many historical Building like the High Court,Government College, the Central Museum, National College of Arts, MontgomeryHall, Tollinton Market, the Punjab University and the Provincial Assembly.
But Lahore offers a great deal more thanjust monuments. A variety of art galleries, museums, theatres, and shoppingarcades are as much a part of the culture and activities that go on in Lahore at a breath lking pace. Cool treened avenues, lush green lawns, the serene drive down the canal, the parts, thefountains and the modern high se buildings, add to the character and charm ofthe city.

Historical Places  

Architectural heritage of Lahore needs no description. The architectural works of Lahore, sensuous in their exploitation of colors, textures, materials, intellectual in vigorous application of intricate formal patrons and spiritual in essence at once seduce the art lovers.
In Lahore 109 various buildings of historical or architectural importance have been declared as Special Premises in addition to 61 such buildings already declared as Protected Monuments under the Federal Antiquities Act 1975. Some of the important places which speak volumes of the great Muslim architecture are as under:

Shrine of Hazrat Data Gunj Bakhsh 
Syed Abdul Hassan Ali Hajveri commonly known as Data Gunj Bakhsh (The Bestower of Treasures) is the luminous figure of history of the subcontinent. While Muslim concurred subcontinent by force, the saints like Data Gunj Bakhsh influenced the people to embrace Islam voluntarily through their eternal teachings and rational approach towards life. The mausoleum of the great mystic saint Syed Abdul Hassan Ali Hajveri is situated near Bhatti Gate, one of the gates of the walled city.

Badshahi Mosque
The Mughal Architecture is the most elegant manifestation of the building of art of the Muslim world as a whole. The Badshahi Mosque was one of the last accomplishments of this great architectural era of the Mughals. The great Emperor Aurangzeb built this mosque. Apart from its architectural magnificence, the Badshahi Mosque is also one of the largest mosques in the world.

Shalimar Garden
This romantic Mughal monument takes its name from the ancient word Sholah Mah and means light of the Moonmongst all the Mughal monuments, it stands out as the pinnacle of romanticism. It is an enchanting piece of landscape where an imaginative gardenerancy has come into full bloom.

Lahore Fort
The massive doors and great walls of the Lahore Fort speak eloquently of the days gone by. It is one of the great palace forts built by the Mughals in South Asia.

Minar-e-Pakistan Minar-e-Pakistan has been constructed at the site where the Pakistan Resolution was passed in 1940. The object of this Resolution was to launch the struggle for the attainment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the Subcontinent, which was then governed by the British.

Jehangir Tomb
It is believed that Jehangireloved wife Nur Jehan designed this tomb. However, it was built and constructed by his son, Shah Jehan, who had a great love for architecture.

Lahore Museum
The Lahore Museum is regarded as one of the oldest and the most authentic in Pakistan. It was built during the times of the British. Lahore Museum has been constructed in the Mughal Gothic style.

Noor Jehan Tomb (1645 A.D.)
The real name of Noor Jehan was Mehrun Nisa Begum. She was given the title of Nur Jehan (light of the world) when she was married and used to consult her in a number of affairs. Noor Jehan was the only empress whose name appeared on the Mughal coins. She died in 1645 AD eighteen years after Jehangireath and was buried near her husbandomb.

Kim's Gun (1802 A.D.)
Ahmad Shah Abdali brought the gun into India. It was used in the battle of Paniput. He left it behind thinking it was unwise to take it back to Kabul. This gun, originally known as Zamas been immortalized as Kimun by the great English novelist poet Rudyard Kipling who lived and worked in Lahore for a long time.

Lahore High Court
Situated on the Mall Road between the General Post Office and new building of State Bank of Pakistan, the building of Lahore High Court was constructed in 1889 in the Indo-Sarcenic style.

Assembly Chambers
It is located on the Faisal Chowk (Charring Cross) in between the WAPDA House and the Al-Falah Building. The first Legislature Assembly of the Punjab under Government of India Act 1935 was constituted in 1937. The Assembly Chambers was constructed in 1938.

National College of Arts
Located on the Mall Road and adjacent to the Lahore Museum in front of Istanbul Chowk and the Zamzama Gun, the British Government established the Mayo School of Arts in 1875. The school was one of its kinds in the Indian Sub Continent.

The Alhamra Arts Council (1970 A.D.)
The Alhamra Arts Council is a relatively modern building, but keeping in view the architectural heritage of Lahore, red bricks and lime mortar has been used for its construction so that is may harmonize with other important buildings such as the Museum, Aitchison College, High Court and Punjab University (Old Campus). Alhamra serves as a center of education for music and related arts and has three of the most modern theater halls in Pakistan.

Town Hall
It is located on the Mall Road on a point where it meets the Lower Mall Road. Sir Charles Aitcheson laid its foundation stone in 1887 and name was given Jubilee Town Hall. The formal inauguration took place in 1890 by Prince Albert Victor. It is a double storied building. The hall is on the upper storey. The floor is laid with teak planks. It is venue of civil functions, seminars and public addresses. It is now under the control of City District Government, Lahore.

Governor House
It is located on the Mall Road opposite the Bagh-e-Jinnah. It was a private house of Khushal Singh and later on acquired by the British. The adoption and reconstruction was completed in 1853. Maj. Macgregor, the then Deputy Commission of Lahore, was the first official occupant and later on it was converted into the official residence of Lt. Governor of Punjab. During the last fifty years, it is used as the residence of the Governor of Punjab. One wing of the premises is reserved as Guest House. It has a Darbar Hall, Dinning Room, Hillocks and a swimming pool.

Jallo Recreational Park
The Park was established during 1978 over an area of 456 acres. Besides recreation facilities the following amusements also exist in Jallo Park:-
  • Boating
  • Fruit Garden
  • Electric Swings
  • Merry Go Round
Ravi National Park Total area of Ravi National Park is 68 acres out of which 40 acres covers grassy lawn. The following amusements exist in the Park:-
  • Electric Swing.
  • Water Slides
  • Merry Go Round


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