CSS Botany Syllabus

Revised Scheme and Syllabus for CSS Competitive Examination-2016
I. Algae, Fungi and Bryophytes
Phycology: Distribution, Classification, Structure, Life History and Economic
importance of the main groups of Algae.
Mycology and Plant Pathology: Structure, Reproduction, Classification and
Economic importance of the main groups of Fungi. Diseases of economically
important crops and general principles of their control
Bryology: Structure and reproduction of bryophytes, Evolution of Gametophyte
and Sporophyte.

II. Peteridophyta and Gymnosperms
General account with special reference to structure, life history and affinities of
both Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Ontogeny and structure of seed,
classification and economic importance of Gymnosperms.

III. Anatomy and Embryology
Primary and secondary tissues. Meristems. Secondary growth in dicot stem.
Anatomy of leaf, stem and root.
Micro and megasporogenesis, pollination mechanism, fertilization, development of
Embryo and Endosperm, Seed dispersal.

IV. Taxonomy of Angiosperms
Systems of classification. Rules of botanical nomenclature. Concepts of
speciation. Introduction to modern trends in plant taxonomy: bio-systematic,
chemotaxonomy and numerical taxonomy.General characters and economic
importance of common angiosperm families.

V. Plant Physiology
Plant water relations, Osmotic Quantities, component potentials of water and their
role in transport, water absorption by roots, transpiration. Role of essential mineral
elements and their uptake. Plant hormones. Photoperiodism, Vernalization.
Dormancy and Seed germination.Enzymes.
Photosynthesis: Plant pigments, Light reaction, CO2 fixation, Mechanism of
Respiration: Glycolysis, Kreb cycle, Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.

VI. Ecology
Influence of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors on plant growth. Vegetation
sampling techniques. Concepts of ecosystems and their productivity, ecological
energetics, Pyramids (of numbers, biomass and energy), trophic levels, food
chains and food webs.Biogeochemical cycles (Hydrological and Nitrogen).
Causes and reclamation of soil salinity and water logging in Pakistan. Soil
erosion, its controland soil conservation methods. Deforestation. Biodiversity

VII. Cytology
Cell cycle, cellular morphology, chemistry of cell wall and cell membrane, cell to
cell communication, plant tissue and cell culture, cell senescence and cell death.
Ultra-structure of various cell organelles: Mitochondria, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic
reticulum, Plastids, Ribosomes, Glyoxysomes, Vaculoes, Nucleus.

VIII. Genetics
Mendelian Genetics, Multiple Alleles, Polygenic inheritance, Gene interaction,
Epistasis and pleiotropy, Sex-linked inheritance, Chromosomal aberrations,
Mutations, DNA repair.

IX. Evolution
Introduction of Evolution, Evolutionary history, Evolution of life, Convergent
Evolution, Divergent Evolution, Parallel Evolution and Natural selection

X. Molecular Biology
Nucleic acids, DNA as hereditary material, DNA replication, Transcription, Genetic
code, Protein synthesis, Genetic engineering and its application, Genetically
Modified Organisms (GMO).


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