(A) Financial Accounting (50 Marks)
I. Fundamental Accounting Principles, Concepts, Assumptions and Conventions:
Nature and Scope of Accounting, Accrual/Matching Concept, Consistency of
Presentation and Comparability, True and Fair View, Neutrality, Materiality, Prudence,
Completeness, Understandability and Usefulness, Going Concern, and Substance
II. Accounting Cycle/Process and Financial Statements: Transactions and/or Events,
General Journal, General Ledger, Trial Balance (Unadjusted),Adjusting Entries and
Adjusted Trial Balance, Work Sheet, Financial Statements including Income
Statement, Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet), Statement of Cash
Flows and Statement of Changes in Equity in accordance with the Financial Reporting
Framework as specified by International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) through
IFRSs/IASs, and by Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan through
Companies Ordinance 1984, and Closing and Reversing Entries.
III. Attributes, and Significance of Accounting Information: Attributes of Accounting
Information, Information/Reporting Requirements of various Users/Stakeholders of
Financial Statements including External (Investors/Shareholders, Creditors, Suppliers,
Lenders/Financiers, Government Agencies etc.) and Internal (Board of Directors,
Partners, Managers, Employees etc.) Stakeholders.
IV. Accounting for common Legal Forms of a Business: Accounting Principles and
Financial Statements of Sole-proprietorships, Partnerships and Joint Stock
Companies including Banking Companies (Excluding Advanced Topics like
Amalgamation, Capital Reduction, Consolidation etc.)
V. Accounting for Associations Not-for-profit, and for Public Sector: Accounting
Principles and Financial Statements - of Associations Not-for-profit, and – of Public
Sector Entities as per Standardized Financial Reporting Framework provided by
International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) Board and Practices being
followed in the country.
VI. Accounting for Non-current Tangible Assets: Fundamental Concepts and
Principles concerning Non-current Assets: Cost; Depreciable Amount; Depreciation;
Fair Value; Property, Plant and Equipment; Residual Value; and Useful Life.
Depreciation Methods and their Application (as specified by International Accounting
Standards Board):Straight-line Method; Reducing Balance Method; Number of Units
Produced and basic know-how of other Methods/Techniques being commonly used
by the Industry.
VII. Fundamental and Technical Analysis of various Forms of Organizations:
Financial Statements’ Analysis including both Horizontal (Measuring Change) and
Vertical (Ratio) Analysis including Liquidity Ratios, Activity Ratios, Debt Ratios,
Profitability Ratios and Market Ratios; Technical and Industry Analysis.
Revised Scheme and Syllabus for CSS Competitive Examination-2016
(B) Cost and Managerial Accounting (50 Marks)
VIII. Fundamental Cost Accounting Principles and Concepts: Nature and Scope of
Cost and Managerial Accounting; Cost Concepts, Elements and Classification;
Underlying Differences among Financial, Cost, and Management Accounting.
IX. Accounting for Material, Labour and Factory Overheads (FOH):Recognition and
Valuation Principles for Material Inventory, and Methods to control Material Inventory;
Calculation/Measurement and Accounting for Payroll for all forms of Labour, Time
Rate and Piece Rate Systems; Commonly used Group Incentive Schemes; Factory
Overhead Costs and FOH Rate, Departmentalization of FOH Costs, their Allocation,
Apportionment and Reapportionment (Primary and Secondary Distributions), Methods
for Secondary Distribution including both Repeated Apportionment/Distribution and
X. Costing for Specific Jobs, and Process Costing: Nature of a Specific Job, and
Job-order Costing; Process Flow and Process Costing by the use of Cost of
Production Report (CPR).
XI. Management Accounting for Planning, Decision-making and Control:
Budgeting and its Use: Meaning and Nature of a Budget; Major Forms of a Budget
including Production and Sales Budget, Cash Budget, Flexible Budgets, Zero -based
Budget, Master Budget etc.
Break-even Analysis: Difference between Marginal and Absorption Costing
Techniques; Concept of Relevant Cost; Application and Use of Contribution Margin
and other Concepts for Planning and Decision-making (under Break-even Analysis)
Variance Analysis: Meaning and Use of Standards and Variances; Major
Classification of Variances including Material, Labour and FOH Variances, and their
(A) Auditing (40 Marks)
I. Fundamental Auditing Principles and Concepts: Audit and Auditing, True and Fair
View, Audit Assertions, Reasonable Assurance, Documentation and Audit Evidence,
Audit Program, Audit Risks, Computer Information Systems (EDP Systems) and
Computer-assisted Audit Techniques (CAAT), Inspection, Fraud, Going Concern,
Audit Materiality, Misstatement, Governance and Premise, Tests of Control and
II. Audit Considerations, Dimensions and Conduct: Internal Control System and
Internal Audit, Internal VS External Audit, Responsibility for Financial Statements,
Audit Planning, Scope of an Audit, Objectives of an Audit, Inherent Limitations of an
Audit, Risk Assessment and Management, Internal Audit and Corporate Governance,
Revised Scheme and Syllabus for CSS Competitive Examination-2016
Classification of Audit, Qualities of an Auditor, Auditing in Computer Information
Systems (EDP Systems) and Computer-assisted Audit Techniques, General Auditing
Principles and Techniques commonly applicable to various Types of Undertakings
including Merchandizing, Manufacturing, Banking, Insurance, Investment Entities etc.,
Audit Performance and Audit Completion.
III. Role and Responsibilities of an Auditor: Auditor’s professional and legal Rights,
Responsibilities & Duties, and Liabilities; Auditor’s Opinion and Report, and their
classification (Types); - as specified under the Companies Ordinance 1984, and in the
handbook of IFAC.
(B) Business Taxation (30 Marks)
IV. Tax Structure, and Fundamental Conceptsvis-à-vis Income Tax in Pakistan: Tax
Structure in Pakistan; Fundamental Definitions/Terminologies defined under Section 2
of the Income Tax Ordinance 2001.
V. Income Tax and Sales Tax Principles, and their Application: Selected Provisions
from Income Tax - Income for Tax Purposes [Section 4, 9 & 10], Heads of Income
[Section 11], Tax Payable on Taxable Income [First Schedule to the Ordinance],
Salary Income and Taxation [Sections 12 to 14], Income from Property [Sections 15 &
16], Income from Business[Sections 18 to 20], Capital Gains[Sections 37 to38],
Income from other sources[Section 39, 40, 89, 101(6), 111],Tax Credits [Sections 61
to 65], Taxation of Individuals, AOPs and Companies [Sections 86, 92, 94], Due Date
for Payment of Tax [Section 137], Deduction of Tax at Source/With -holding Tax
[Sections 147, 149, 153, 155]and related Income Tax Rules 2002.
Selected Definitions and Provisions from Sales Tax –Scope of Tax [Section 3],
Exempt supply [Section 2(11)], Goods [Section 2(12)], Input Tax [2(14)], Registered
person [Section 2(25)], Supply [Section 2(33)], Tax [Section 2(34)], Retail Price and
Retailer [Section 2(27)& 2(28)], Taxable Activity [Section 2(35)], Taxable Supply
[Section 2(41)], Tax Fraction [Section 2(36)], Tax Period [Section 2(43)], Time of
Supply [Section 2(44)], and Determination of Tax Liability [Section 7].
(C) Business Studies, and Finance (30 Marks)
VI. Business Studies: Nature and Scope of a Business Entity, Contemporary
Challenges posed to a Business; Common Legal Forms of a Business Entity – Sole-proprietorship, Partnership, Joint Stock Company, their Features, Formation and
Management; Business Combinations and their Scope; Business Cycle and its
Implications; Role of Information Technology in Business.
VII. Finance: Meaning, Nature and Scope of Finance, and Financial Management;
Common Modes (Types) of Business Finance – Short-, Medium-, and Long-term
Financing; Nature and Scope of Financial Markets and Institutions; Features and
Classification of Financial Markets; Financial Management Techniques for Decision -making: Time Value of Money, Cost of Capital and Capital Budgeting Techniques.