Muslim Rulers and Their Govts



1419 In the Golden Horde Empire, Death of Edigu, overthrow of Chaighray, power captured by Ulugh Muhammad.

1420 In the Golden Horde Empire, Ulugh Muhammad overthrown by Daulat Bairawi.

1420: Turkomans of the Black Sheep Empire, Death of Qara Yusuf; succession of his son Qara Iskandar. In Morocco, Assassination of Abu Said Usman; succession of his infant son Abdul Haq.

1421 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Death of Muhammad I; accession of his son Murad II. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Death of Al Muayyad, succession of Muzaffar Ahmad. Muzaffar Ahmad overthrown by Amir Saifuddin Tata, Death of Saifuddin Tata, succession of his son Muhammad. Muhammad overthrown by Amir Barsbay.

1424 In the Golden Horde Empire, Death of Daulat Bairawi, succession of Berk. In Algeria, The Halsida of Tunisia occupy Algeria. This state of affairs continued throughout the fifteenth century.

1425 In the Uzbegs Empire, Abul Khayr, a prince of the house of Uzbeg declare his independence in the western part of Siberia,

1427 In the Golden Horde Empire, Berk overthrown by Ulugh Muhammad who captured power for the second time.

1430 In the Uzbegs Empire, Abul Khayr occupies Khawarzam.

1434 Turkomans of the Black Sheep Empire, Deposition of Qara Iskandar; installation of his brother Jahan Shah. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Death of Qara Usman, succession of his son Ali Beg. In Tunisia, Death of Abul Faris after a rule of forty years, succession of his son Abu Abdullah Muhammad.

1435 In Tunisia, Deposition of Abu Abdullah Muhammad, power captured by Abu Umar Usman.

1438 In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Death of Barsbay, accession of his minor son Jamaluddin Yusuf; Yusuf overthrown and power captured by the Chief Minister Saifuddin Gakmuk. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Ali Beg overthrown by
his brother Hamza.

1439 In the Golden Horde Empire, Ulugh Muhammad withdrew from Sarai and found the principality of Qazan. Said Ahmad came to power in Sarai.

1440 Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Hamza overthrown by Jahangir a son of Ali Beg.

1441 In the Golden Horde Empire, Crimea seceded from Sarai.

1446 In the Timurids Empire, Death of Shah Rukh, succession of Ulugh Beg. In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Second battle of Kossova resulting in the victory of the Turks. Serbia annexed to Turkey and Bosnia became its vassal.

1447 In the Golden Horde Empire, Astra Khan seceded from Sarai.

1449 In the Uzbegs Empire, Abul Khayr captures Farghana. In the Timurids Empire, Death of Ulugh Beg, succession of Abdul Latif.

1450 In the Timurids Empire, Assassination of Abdul Latif, accession of Abu Said.
1451 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Death of Murad II; accession of his son Muhammad II.

1453 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Capture of Constantinople by the Turks. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Death of Jahangir; accession of his son Uzun Hasan. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Death of Gakmuk. succession of his son Fakhruddin Usman. Usman overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Inal.

1454 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Attack against Wallachia, Wallachia became a vassal state of Turkey.

1456 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Annexation of Serbia.

1461 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Death of Saifuddin Inal, succession of his son Shahabuddin Ahmad. Shahabuddin Ahmad overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Khushqadam.

1462 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Annexation of Albania.

1465 In the Golden Horde Empire, Death of Said Ahmad, succession of his son Khan Ahmad. In Morocco, Assassination of Abdul Haq. End of the Marinid rule. Power snatched by Sharif Muhammad al Jati.

1467 Turkomans of the Black Sheep Empire, Death of Jahan Shah, end of the rule of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep attacked the White Sheep. Jahan Shah was defeated and the Black Sheep territories annexed by the White Sheep. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Death of
Khushqadam, accession of his son Saifuddin Yel Bey. Deposition of Yel Bey, power captured by the Mamluk General Temur Bugha.

1468 In the Uzbegs Empire, Death of Abul Khayr, succession of his son Haidar Sultan. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Uzun Hasan defeated the Timurids at the battle of Qarabagh whereby the White Sheep became the masters of Persia and Khurasan. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Deposition of Femur Bugha, power captured by the Mamluk
General Qait Bay.

1469 In the Timurids Empire, Death of Abu Said, disintegration of the Timurid state. In Khurasan Hussain Baygara cam
e to power and he ruled during the remaining years of the fifteenth century.

1472 In Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati overthrown by the Wattisid chief Muhammad al Shaikh who establishes the rule of the Wattisid dynasty.

1473 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, War against Persia; Persians defeated.

1475 In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Annexation of Crimea. War against Venice. Turkey became the master of the Aegean Sea .

1478 Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Death of Uzun Hasan, succession of his son Khalil.

1479 Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Khalil overthrown by his uncle Yaqub.

1480 In the Golden Horde Empire, Assassination of Khan Ahmad, succession of his son Said Ahmad II.

1481 In the Golden Horde Empire, Said Ahmad I1 overthrown by his brother Murtada. In the Ottoman Turks Empire, Death of Muhammad II, accession of Bayazid II.

1488 In the Uzbegs Empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of his nephew Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Usman after a rule of 52 years, succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.

1489 In Tunisia, Abu Zikriya Yahya overthrown by Abul Mumin.

1490 In Tunisia, Abul Mumin overthrown, power recaptured by Abu Yahya.

1493 Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Death of Yaqub. accession of his son Bayangir.

1495 Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Bayangir overthown by his cousin Rustam.

1496 In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Abdication of Qait Bay, succession of his son Nasir Muhammad.

1497 Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Rustam overthrown by Ahmad. Anarchy and fragmentation.

1498 In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Deposition of Nasir Muhammad, power captured by Zahir Kanauh.

1499 In the Uzbegs Empire, Shayhani Khan conquered Transoxiana. In the Golden Horde Empire, Death of Murtada, succession of Said Ahmad III." In the Ottoman Turks Empire, The Turks defeated the Venetian fleet in the battle of Lepanto.


1500 In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat.

1501 Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion.

1507 The Portuguese under d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf.

1508 Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, End of the White Sheep dynasty and the annexation of their territories by the Safawids.

1511 D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims.

1517 The Ottoman Sultan Selim Yavuz ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks and conquers Egypt.

1520 The reign of Sulaiman the Magnificent begins.

1526 Louis of Hungary dies at the Battle of Mohacs.

1526 The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra.

1528 The Ottomans take Buda in Hungary.

1529 Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.

1550 The architect Sinan builds the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul.

1550 The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra.

1550 Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo.

1556 The death of Sulaiman the Magnificent.

1568 Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism ) in Spain.

1571 The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.

1578 The Battle of the Three Kings at Qasr al-Kabir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.

1588 Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I begins.

1591 Mustaili Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.


1600 Sind annexed by the Mughals. End of the Arghun rule in Sind .


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