The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) was developed in 1970s by two Australian academicians-John Biggs and Kevin Collis.
Government of the Punjab established an autonomous examining body named as Punjab Examination Commission (PEC). The major purpose of estabishing this body is to administer assessment-only examinations for grade 5 and grade 8. It is only focused on measuring learning outcomes of these students.
SOLO suggests that there are five modes of cognitive functioning rather than the four developmental stages of Piaget. Biggs and Collis have provided a post-formal mode of development to describe shifts in cognitive growth beyond that normally observed among school children
- Sensorimotor mode. The focus of attention (or source of elements) is the physical environment. Children develop the ability to coordinate and manage their interaction with the physical environment.
- Iconic mode. In this mode, symbols and imagery are used to represent the elements of the sensorimotor mode
- Concrete symbolic mode. This mode involves a shift in abstraction from representing the physical world through oral language to using written, second order, symbol systems that apply to the experienced world
- Formal mode. As indicated above, the elements of attention in the formal mode are theoretical constructs without a real world referent.
- Post-formal mode. The existence of this mode seems to be hypothesized rather than be supported by empirical evidence.