Total Marks – 100
1. Essay on prominent works of personalities and writers
2. translation of unseen passages from pushto into English and Urdu
3. Translation of unseen passages of English or urdu into Pashto
4. General questions on evolution and criticism of Pushto prose and poetry
5. folk literature: Introduction of tappa, charbaita, lobha, neemakai, sandara and badala (including
folk stories)
Total Marks – 100
1. Individual, culture and society: Individual as a social product. The variety of social forms, methods
of socialization, ethnocentrisms, norms and values, cultural patterns, varieties of sub-cultures
2. Sociological theory: The sociological perspectives – Evolutionary, order and conflict, evolutionary
theorists – Ibn-i-Khaldun, Spencer and Tannis. Order theorists – August Comte, Emile Durkheim,
Max Weber. Conflict theorists – George Hegel, Karl Marx, Lewis Coser, Mills
3. Methods of sociological research: Research design, surveys, participant observation,
experiments, case studies
4. Social interaction: Significance of social classes, forms of social classes – tribes, biradaris,
castes, classes and feudal system in Pakistan. Social mobility – nature of social mobility. Mobility
determinants in Pakistan society, social immobility, culture in poverty
5. Social control: Mechanism of social control – internal and external means of social control.
Alienation, integration – integrative patterns in Pakistani society
6. Social and cultural change and social policy: Processed of social and culture change – discovery,
invention, diffusion, factors in rate of social and cultural change. Incentives and inhibitions to
social and cultural change in Pakistan. Social planning and directed social and cultural change
7. Community: The rural community, traditional characteristics of rural life, the urban community,
rural – urban convergence, urbanism, future of cities in Pakistan
8. Social institutions: The nature and genesis of institutions, the process of institutions, functions
and trade of social institutions. Family, religion, educational, economic and political institutions
9. Social problems in Pakistan: Population growth, demographic transition – deviant behaviour,
institutionalized evasions, social conflicts, internal and international migration, aging, drug abuse,
prostitution, smuggling, illiteracy and poverty
Total Marks – 100
1. Basic probability: Axiomatic definition of probability, random variable, distribution function,
probability density function, mathematical expectation, conditional probability, jointly distributed
random variables, marginal and conditional distribution, conditional expectation, stochastic
2. Some special distributions: Binomial, Poisson, negative binomial, hyper geometric, normal
distributions with their derivation of their mean and variance. Definition and application of chisquare,
“T” and “F” distributions
3. Statistical inference: Maximum likelihood estimation of the mean and the variance of a normal
population. Confidence interval for mean, difference of means and for variance, testing
hypothesis for the equality of two means (paired and un-paired observations), testing of equality
of several means (ANOVA) and testing of variance and equality of two variance
4. Correlation and regression: Simple linear regression model, point and interval estimation of
parameters. Simple, partial, multiple correlation and testing of these correlations
5. Sampling, simple random, stratified, systematic and cluster sampling, estimates of mean and total
and their precision
6. applications of statistics in social, economic and political problems, public health, crimes, law,
social innovations, economic development, socio-political inequality


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