Total Marks – 200
Paper I
Marks – 100

1. Thallophytes
a. Phycology: Origin, evolution, distribution and classification with reference to range, structure, life
history, ecology and economic importance of the main groups of algae
b. Mycology and Plant Pathology Structure, development reproduction, classification, phylogeny,
physiology and economic importance of the main groups of fungi, Diseases of economic
importance and general principles of their control
2. Bryology: Evolution of gametophytes and Sporophytes
3. Peteridophyta and Gymnosperms: General structure, life history and evolutionary tendencies,
Ontogeny and structure of seed
4. Anatomy and Embryology: Primary and secondary issues, Meristems, tissue differentiation,
normal and abnormal secondary growth, anatomy of leaf, stem and root, micro and
megasporogenesis, pollination mechanism, fertilization, development of embryo and endosperm,
seed dispersal
5. Taxonomy of Angiosperms: Systems of classification, Rules of botanical nomenclature, Concepts
of speciation, introduction to modern trends in plant taxonomy, Bio-systematics, chemotaxonomy
and numerical taxonomy
Paper II
Marks – 100

1. Plant physiology: Plant water relations, osmotic quantities, absorptions, transpiration, role of
essential mineral elements, their uptake and distribution, growth and development, plant
hormones, photoperiodism, vernalization, Dormancy and Seed germination. Biochemistry of
carbohydrates, proteins and fats with reference to plants. Enzymes, plant pigments,
photophosphorelation, path of carbon in photosynthesis, oxidative phosophorelation (respiration),
nitrogen and fat metabolism
2. Ecology: Influence of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors on plant growth, Sampling techniques,
Major formations in relation to climatic zones, Concepts of ecosystems and their productivity,
Ecological energetics, efficiency, pyramids, food chains and trophic levels
3. salinity and water logging in Pakistan, causes, reclamation, soil erosion, methods of control and
conservation, pollution and conservation of natural resources
4. Cytology: Detailed study of ultra structure of cell. Mitosis and meiosis. Significance of meiosis
5. Genetics:
(a) Mendalian Genetics, Linkage, Crossing over, sex linked genes, lethals, balanced lethals,
mutation, polyploidy
(b) Biochemical Genetics: Bi-chemical nature of hereditary material, genetic code, Fine Structure of
gene, transduction and transformation
6. Evolution: Theories of evolution, Neo-Darwinism, Neo-Lamarckism, Adaptive Mutations


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