- Before SOLO Taxonomy, Bloom’s taxonomy was used in Pakistan.
- The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom's Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives and skills that educators set for students (learning objectives).
- The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago.
- Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive.
Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension,
and "thinking through" a particular topic.
There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order
processes to the highest:
At this level, the learner is required to exhibit memory of previously learned
material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers.
The learner is required to show understanding of facts and ideas by organizing,
comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas.
This level requires using new knowledge; solve problems in new situations by
applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.
Here the learner is expected to examine and break information into parts by
identifying motives, causes or inferences and find evidence to support generalizations.
Here the individual learner compiles information together in a different way by
combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.
The individual is expected to present and defend opinions by making
judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of
Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically
manipulate a tool or instrument like a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus
on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills.
Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the
psychomotor domain, but since then other educators have created their own
Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and
their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically
target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotions, and feelings.
There are five levels in the affective domain, moving through the lowest order
processes to the highest:
At the lowest level the student passively pays attention. Without this level, no
learning can occur.
The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a
stimulus but also reacts in some way.
The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of
The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and
accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating
on what has been learned.
The student has held a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on
his/her behaviour so that it becomes a characteristic.