Largest city Sydney
National language English
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove
Prime Minister Tony Abbott
Chief Justice Robert French
Upper house Senate
Lower house House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
Federation, Constitution 1 January 1901
Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 9 October 1942 (with effect
from 3 September 1939)
Australia Act 3 March 1986
Total 7,692,024 km2 (6th)
2,969,907 sq mi
2015 estimate 23,712,200
Currency Australian dolla
It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia..
Australia is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the world's 12th-largest economy. In 2012 Australia had the world's fifth-highest per capita income.Australia's military expenditure is the world's 13th-largest.
Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a federal division of powers.
- The legislature: the bicameral Parliament, the Senate, and the House of Representatives;
- The executive: the Federal Executive Council, in practice the Governor-General as advised by the Prime Minister and Ministers of State
- The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts.
Australia has six states—New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA)—and two major mainland territories—the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT).