Friday, July 22, 2011

Famous Urdu Books

Famous Urdu Books


Seerat-un-nabi(pbuh) 
1:-seerat-un-nabi(pbuh) by sibli nomani/salman nadvi
 

2:-Rahmatalil alameen(pbuh) by qaazi muhammad sulaiman mansoor puri
 

3:-Pegamber-e-insaniat(pbuh) by jafar shah phulwari
 

4:-Mohsin-e-insaniat(pbuh) by naeem sidiqi
 

5:-seerat-e-sarwar-e-alam(pbuh) by abu alla madoodi
 

6:-insan-e-kamil(pbuh) by doc.khalid alvi
 

7:-beghambare sehra(pbuh) by k.l.ghabba
 

8:-Rasool-e-arabi(pbuh) by rasool baksh tawakali
 


9:-Mehboob-e-khuda by ch.afzal haq
 

10:-hayat-e-muhammad by muhammad hussain haikal
 

11:_kutbat-e-madars by syed salman nadvi
 

12:-khutbat-e-bhawalpur by doc. Hameed ul allh
 

13:- hayat-e-taiba by muhammad abdul hai


DASTAANAIN
 

1:-bagh-o-bahar by meer aman dehlvi
 

2:-fasan-i-ajaib by rajab ali baig sarwar
 

3:- tota kahani by syed haider baksh haidari


Novals
 

1:-fasani azad by ratan nath sarshar
 

2:-tobat-un-nasookh by molvi nazir ahmad dehlvi
 

3:-firdos-i-barin by abdul haleem sharar
 

4:-umrao jan ada by mirza muhammad hadi ruswa
 

5:-bazra-i-husn by prem chand
 


6:-maidan-i-amal by prem chand
 

7:-london ki aik raat by sajad zaheer
 

8:-maidan-i-amal by molana rashid al khairi
 

9:-theri kheer by asmat cugtai
 

10:- shikast by krishan chandar.

History of Urdu poetry

History of Urdu poetry


Urdu language and literature, beyond their spatial confines, have been more heard of than read. With the publication of some notable translations, some of them in the recent past, a new literary culture seems to be emerging from the canons of the old. Modern Urdu poetry, of which this is the first comprehensive selection, has its own tradition of the new. It has developed through stages of a variegated literary history. This history has absorbed both the native and non- native elements of writing in Arabic and Persian, and the Urdu language has survived through several crises and controversies. Some of these are related to its growth and development, its use by the British to divide the Hindus and the Muslims. it estrangement in the land of its birth following the Partition of India and its interaction with Hindi once akin but now an alien counterpart. Even with the extinction of those generations of Sikhs in Punjab, Muslims in Bengal and Hindus elsewhere, who nurtured the language with love and for whom it was the mark of a cultivated man, the language has survived and developed. It is now the cultural legacy of India and the adopted national identity of Pakistan, and significant new literature has emerged in both countries.

Literary centre : Deccan, Delhi and Lucknow
Literature in Urdu grew at three different centres: Deccan, Delhi and Lucknow. As it happened, the Deccan emerged as the earliest centre, even though the language had first developed in northern India, as a result of an interesting linguistic interaction between the natives and the Muslim conquerors from Central Asia, who settled there in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, The period stretching roughly from the middle of the fourteenth centuries to the middle of the eighteenth produce a number of poets. They are claimed both by Urdu and Hindi literary historians, but Quli Qutub Shah (1565-1611) is generally acknowledged as the first notable poet, like Chaucer is English, with a volume of significant poetry in a language later named Urdu. He was followed by several others, among whom Wali Deccani (1635-1707) and Siraj Aurangabadi ( 1715-1763) deserves special mention. Delhi emerged as another significant centre with Mirza Mohammad Rafi Sauda (1713-80), Khwaja Mir Dard (1721-85), Mir Taqi Mir (1722-1810), Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib (1797-1869) and Nawab Mirza Khan Dagh (1831-1905). It reached its height of excellence during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Lucknow made its way as the third important centre with Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi (1725-1824), Inshallah Khan Insha (1757-1817), Khwaja Haidar Ali Atish (1778-1846), Iman Baksh Nasikh (1787-1838), Mir Babr Ali Anis (1802-74) and Mirza Salamat Ali Dabir (1803-1875). These literary capitals, where the classical tradition developed, had their individual stylistic and thematic identities, but broadly it may be said that the ghazal (love lyric) reached its zenith with Mir and Ghalib, qasida (panegyric) with Sauda, mathnawi (romance) with Mir Hasan and marthiya (elegy) with Anis and Dabir.

Hali and Iqbal : new poetry in Urdu
In the period that followed, and before the launching of the Progressive Writers Movement in the 30s, mention should be made of Altaf Husain Hali (1837-1914) and Mohammad Iqbal (1877-1938). Hali was a poet of the newer socio-cultural concerns and advocated 'natural poetry' that had an ameliorative purpose. His Musaddas is an important example of this. He was also a theorist who opened new frontiers in Urdu criticism with his Moqaddama-e-Sher-o-Shairi (Preface to Poetry) which equals Wordsworth's Preface to Lyrical Ballads in importance, and even surpasses it in certain respects. He realized that with the impact of the West a new perspective was required. He, along with Mohammad Husain Azad (1830-1910), laid the foundations of a new poetry in 1867 under the auspices of Anjuman-e-Punjab, Lahore. Azad had asserted in the same year that Urdu poets should come out of the grooves of responses conditioned by Persian culture and root their works in the ethos of the land. Seeing no response to his pleas, he reiterated the same point seven years later on May 8, 1874 during his address on the occasion of the first mushaira of the Anjuman. These appeals failed to make and impact as sensibilities rooted in particular tradition are not easily altered even by impassioned pleas. Hali, creating a new taste for his age. Iqbal, with his remarkable religio-philosphical vision, and Josh Malihabadi (1838-1982), with his nationalistic and political fervour, produced exceptionally eloquent kinds of poetry that continue to reverberate over the years. Iqbal remained the most influential poet to achieve artistic excellence while putting forward a philosophical point of view, and his poetry, quite often, acquired the status of the accepted truth. A host of others Urdu poets and translators of English poetry who appeared on the literary scene during the first quarter of this century experimented with non-traditional poetic forms but they ultimately echoed sentiments and adopted forms that were more or less tradition-bound. They also looked towards the West, the traditional source of literary influence, but that was a world apart and too far to seek, They could reach only the Romantics who had already become outmoded in an age identified with Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. A characteristically modern poem in form and value, tone and tenor, remained at best an intriguing possibility.
Progressive Writers Movement
The 1930s emerged as the archway for entry into a new world and achieve the unachieved. Some young Indians-- Sajjad Zaheer, Mulk Raj Anand, and Mohammad Deen Taseer-- who wee then studying in London, musing on the role of literature in a fast-changing world, came up with a manifesto for what came to be known as the Progressive Writers Movement. Even before this, Sajjad Zaheer, during his stay in India had published Angare (Embers), an anthology of short stories, with explicit sexual references and an attack on the decadent moral order. The book had to be banned, like Lady Chatterley's Lover, but the stories had an impact, as they were thematically interesting and technically innovative. The reader had suddenly become exposed to the worlds of Freud, Lawrence, Joyce and Woolf. There was a world of new values waiting to be explored by an emotionally charged and intellectually agile reader. the Progressive Writers Movement was launched at the right time. This was the precise hour to shed the age-old traditions, take leave to the clichés, proposed new theories, and explore a new world order.
Akhter Husain Raipuri, in his well-timed Adab aur Inqilab (Literature and Revolution) published in 1934, discarded the classical Urdu poets, including Mir and Ghalib, as degenerate representative of a feudalistic culture. This rejection was, however, based on extra-critical considerations as he was more intent on popularizing Marxist thought in literature. Premchand's famous presidential address to the conference of Progressive Writers Association in Lucknow two years later in 1936, came as a more precise call to relate literature to social reality. ' We will have to change the standards of beauty, ' he had said, and beauty of him was that which Eliot identified as ' boredom and horror' in his own context. The movement focussed on poverty, social backwardness, decadent morality, political exploitation; it dreamt of an ideal society and a just political system.
Every rebel was, therefore, a progressive writer and vice-versa during those exhilarating days. He was basically wedded to the idea of political and social revolution. He drew his inspiration from Marx. He rejected the striving for individual signatures, new modes of expression and new experiments in form. It was important for the poet to denote rather than connote, and to appeal to the larger humanity rather than to the individual. Falling victim of these errors before long, the movement alienated some noted poets, the most important of them being N. M. Rashed (1910-75) and Miraji (1912-49), who came together to lead a group called Halqa-e-Arbab-e-Zauq (Circle of Connoisseurs) in 1939. The progressive writers insistence on ideology and the impatience of those who cared more for art are reminiscent of the British poets of the 1930s and the later stance of W. H. Auden.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz (1911-84) is the most prominent and the finest of the poets who subscribed to the progressive ideology. he was singularly successful in striking a balance between art an ideas. He was drew upon sources other than Urdu and Persian and imparted an individual tone to his poetry. he did not raise slogans; he only uttered soft notes of expostulation. he was inspired more by the spirit of liberation than by slogans raised elsewhere. Prominent among other progressive poets were Asrarul Haq Majaz (1908-56), Makhdoom Mohiuddin (1908-69), Ali Sardar jafri (b.1913), Jan Nisar Akhter (1914-76), Kaifi Azmi (b.1918) and Sahir Ludhianawi (1921-80). They are mentioned here not only for the individual qualities of their poetry by also for their importance in this movement at a particular juncture in literary history. Despite the deep political complexion of the Progressive Writers Movement, it prominence was a short-lived affair. The next generation of poets expressed certain misgivings about their emphasis on class struggle in a materialistic and scientific world. The new poet wished to shake off all external shackles and apprehend his own experience for himself.

The modernism
N. M. Rashed and Miraji are the two most remarkable poets in this group.They along with Faiz, represent in the Urdu language what Eliot and the Symbolists do in English and French. They appeared later but also showed a unique resilience and vitality. Faiz was a poet with a message, one woven artistically into a pattern of symbols and delivered in a mellifluous tones. Rashed treated the Urdu language in a fresh way and created complex symbiotic fusion. Faiz appeals alike to the philanthropist and the philanderer, the pious and profane, the music makers and dreamers of dreams, but Rashed appeals only to a select readership. Faiz emerged as a myth in his own lifetime while Rashed and Miraji are yet to be fully appreciated. Rashed's resources are immense. The merging to the eastern and western influences accounts for the richness of his verse enhanced by linguistic innovation and poetic skill. Miraji, who reminds one of Tristan Corbiere in his bohemianism, drew upon Oriental, American and French sources, meditated upon time, death, the mystery if human desires, the raptures of sex and wrote in a variety of verse forms -- regular, free, and prose-like. He opted for esoteric symbolism, resorted to the stream-of-consciousness method and emerged as a unique modernist movement in Urdu poetry.
It was on this tradition that individual poets later developed their own version of modernism. Majeed Amjad (1914-74), Akhtarul Iman (b.1915) and Mukhtar Siddiqi (1917-72) deserves special mention here. A poem for them was a delicate work of art that succeeded or failed for its artistic worth. Akhtarul Iman wrote ironic, nostalgic and dramatic poems, while Majeed Amjad wrote in an inimitable introspective mood and ideas. They served as models for the younger poets to follow. The impact of Rashed, Miraji and Faiz was immense and far-reaching. Their successors echoed them, learnt from them and so came to acquire their own voices in course of time.
The generations of poets since the 1950s faced new predicaments. The Partition of India was an experience they had suffered, while the world around was also terribly alive and eventful. Groups of poets followed on after another; Wazir Agha (b.1922), Muneer Niyazi (b.1927), Ameeq Hanfi (1922-88), Balraj Komal (b.1928), Qazi Saleem (b.1930) grappled with the world around in an idiom and form that were decidedly new and had nothing to do with Progressive aesthetics. All of them acquired their own individual identities and made their mark in the development of modern poetry. They looked back at their won masters-- Mir and Ghalib-- and fared forward to Eliot and Empson. Modern literary and philosophical movements no longer remained alien. Realism, symbolism, existentialism, and surrealism, were drawn closer home. Kumar Pashi (1935-92), Zubair Rizvi (b.1935), Shahrayar (b.1936), Nida Fazli (b.1938) and Adil Mansoori (b.1941), on the one hand, and Gilani Kamran (b.1926), Abbas Ather (b.1934), Zahid Dar (b.1936), Saqi Farooqi (b.1936), Iftekhar Jalib (b.1936), Ahmed Hamesh (b.1937), Kishwar Naheed (b.1940) and Fehmida Reyaz (b.1946), on the other, experimented in form and technique, bringing in new diction and finding a place for new experiences. The new poem had come into being; modernism had firmly established itself by the mid-1970s.
Shaabkhoon, a literary journal, projected this movement in a big way and identified the poets of the new order. Ever since its inception in 1966, it has done a singular job -- especially during the vital 60s and 70s -- of creating a taste for modernism. Shamsur Rehman Farooqi, the most perceptive of the modern Urdu critics, played a vital role in helping recognize the contours of modernism with his critical studies. his studies appraising modern poets, as well as classical poets who bear upon the modern tradition, developed sound critical theories and helped in creating an atmosphere for the acceptance and appreciation of modernism.
Poetry in Pakistan
It may not seem quite right to speak of Urdu poetry in terms of Indian and Pakistani poetry, but it would be reasonable to say that the new urdu poetry in Pakistan is remarkable for its variety and vitality. Emerging from the common sources and traditions of history and culture, poetry in Pakistan has achieved its own frames of reference, its own tones of voice, its own notes of protest, largely because of the socio-political compulsions. Its poetics is characterized by a healthy adherence to tradition and somewhat virile improvisation of the traditional modes of expression.
The new poet in Pakistan has created his own blend of the lyrical with the prosaic, the manifest with the allegorical. he expressed his own predicament and that of the world around him which arouse both hope and fear, dreams and despair. Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Majeed Amjad and Muneer Niyazi, with their vitality and strength, have led us to the still more varied and vibrant Sermad Sehbai, Asghar Nadeem Syed, Afzal Ahmad Syed, Zeeshan Sahil and the vital feminine voices of Kishwar Nahed, Fehmida Reyaz, Nasreen Anjum Bhatti, Sara Shagufta, Shaista Habib and Azra Abbas. All these and many more form part of a formidable poetic scene. They are rich in their experience and execution and may well be placed among the prominent Third World voices that are being heard today with great curiosity and interest.
Modernism is an international phenomenon and modern Urdu poetry is a part of it. It has made its mark with its recognizably individual poetics. The Urdu poet is now free to make his choice; he has drawn upon sources both indigenous and foreign, literary and extra-literary, including philosophy, sociology and mythology. The issues regarding the form of the poem, the language, experiential capital and aesthetic dimensions have been resolved. the modern reader has finally identified his poem.

URDU MCQS PAPER 2

21-Meer ki aik Masnavi ka unwaan____hai
khawb o khayal


22-Baal e jibreel k ibtadaai safhay per sirf aik shaer hai,jisay Allama Iqbal ne "Bhartar hari se Mansoob kia hai,ye shayir kis daur ka hai?
uneesveen sadi


23-Khakim ba'dehan mein khaakon ki tadaad?
8


24-Shab e rafta mein nazmen aur ghazlen___unwaanat k tehat likhi gayi hain.
3


25-Meer taqi Meer ki shaayiri k kitnay deewan hain?
6


26-Hafeez k shahnama ki kitni jildain hain?
4


27-Musaddas mein Haali ne musalmano k____ka ziker kia hai
Maazi


28-Sar e waadi e seena Faiz ka kon sa majmooa hai?
5th


29-"Ham urdu mizaah k ahd e yousafi mein jee rahay hain" kis ka qaul hai?
Dr.Zaheer fateh poori


30-Sar e waadi e seena mein faiz ki shayiri 1965 se____tak hai.
1971


31-Ahmad Naseem Qasmi k afsanay____pas manzer ki akkasi kertay hain
daihi(rural)


32-Manzil e shab ka talluq kis sinf se hai?
shaayiri


33-Faiz ki shayiri____shaiyiri hai
samaaji

34-chand ham aser mash'hoor adeebon k____hain
khaakay


35-_____k kalam mein tasavuff,falsafa aur science bhi hai
Ghalib


36-______shaa'ir,afsana nigaar aur naqqad
Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi


37-_____Bang e dara ki nazm hai
taloo e Islam


38-Mushtaq Ahmad yousafi ki tanz o mizaah ki____kutab hain
3


39-Deewan e Ghalib ki pehli ghazal ka matla'a?

Naqsh Faryaadi hai kis ki shokhi e tehreer ka,
kaaghzi hai pairhan her paikar e tasveer ka.

URDU MCQS Paper 1

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Interview Tips for PPSC interviews

 
1.Preparation

Do research on your subject before the interview.
Practice interviewing by asking question from yourself. It might be better if you take help from one of your friend.
Best English skills is the key to success.
Go alone for practice.
Be prepared to meet other candidates.
Remember your education, training and experience—what you have done.
Remember all the skills, abilities and talents you possess that will make you an excellent employee.
Study General books, news paper etc.
Assemble all necessary papers/documents.
Keep in mind all your past experience of interviews, and try to avoid all the mistakes you did before.

2.Some questions


How will you introduce yourself?
Have you researched for the post for which you are going to be interviewed?
Why you consider yourself most suited person for the post?.
Why do you feel you can do the job?
What makes you qualified for the job?
Do you know about job responsibilities?

3.Your dressing and appearance


All clothes should be neatly pressed. Try to wear new clothes.
Clean, polished shoe.
Clean and well-groomed hairstyle.
Clean, trimmed fingernails.
Empty pockets – no noisy coins.
No gum, candy or cigarettes.
On interview morning, give extra 30 minutes to your appearance.

4. Introduce yourself


This is the most important point in interview, failing which can out you from the list. So give much time to know about yourself. You must prepare these points.

4.1 Personal and Education
This part is used to give the interviewer relevant information concerning you personally and about your educational background. This does not include personal information such as marital status, children, etc. The education should be either the latest obtained and/or major field if relevant to job objective.
4.2 Past /Present Experiences
This part is used to share with the interviewer past and present work experiences relevant to the job objective.
4.3 Life / Career Objectives
This part is about your life / Career objectives. These objectives should relevant to the job.
4.4 Why you are here ?
You have the knowledge and work experience relevant to the job, that’s why you are here.

5. Appearing before the interviewer / during interview


Introduce yourself with friendly speeches.
Show interest in what the interviewer is saying, by nodding your head and leaning toward him/her occasionally.
Give positive answers to negative-based questions.
Make frequent eye contact.
Keep a smile on your face during the interview.
Answer politely, and try to relax.
Admit when you don’t know.
Provide accurate information.
Keep friendly environment with the interviewers.
Listen carefully to the questions asked. Ask the interviewer to restate a question if you are confused.
Answer the questions in the language in which you are asked.
Don’t try to be over confidant.
Make positive statements.

6. Things to avoid

Poor personal appearance.
Lack of interest.
Poor knowledge about your future and past experience.
Poor eye contact with interviewer.
Irrelevant answers to question.
Inability to express self clearly; poor voice, poor diction, poor grammar.
Lack of planning for career, no purpose or goals.
Lack of confidence and poise, nervous, ill at ease.
Making excuses.
Lack of maturity.
Errors in Application Form


7. Closing
Thanks the interviewers for their time.
Say ‘Salam or Khuda Hafiz’ at leaving the chair
 


Note-One should aware of his department for which he is applying
see your department information-Departments


Wednesday, July 20, 2011

SPSC Mukhtiar 2002 Paper-II GK


MUKHTIARKAR (2002) Paper-II GK
SINDH PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION,HYDERABAD WRITTEN TEST FOR RFCRUITMENT TO THE POST OF MUKHTIARKAR

QUESTION PAPER


GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ETC: (PAPER-II)
QUESTION NO:



01. First paper to use the title "Quaid-e-Azam" was:
A) Dawn weekly (B) Dawn daily (C) Al Aman (D) Comrade (E) Pioneer


02. Swadeshi movement was launched to reverse the:
(A) Partition of India (B) Partition of Bengal (C) Separation of Sindh from Bombay (D) Annexation of Kashmir (E) Annexation of Goa.


03 Circadian Rhythm refers to:
(A) Planetary movements (B) Formation of galaxies (C) Human body cycles (D) Calisthenics


4 The Holy Prophet (PBUH) performed Haj in:
(A) 8th Hijri (B) 10th Hijri (C) 7thHijri (D) 11th Hijr


5 Which Holy book belonged to Hazrat Moosa (A.S):
(A) Taurat (B) Zaboor (C) Anjeel (D) Holy Bible (E) Old Testament.


06 First convert to Islam was a:
(A) Lady (B) Boy (C) Slave (D) Companion


07 How long was the Holy Prophet (PBUH) visiting Ghar-e-Hira before the first "Wahi"
(A) 05 years (B) 05 months (C) 15 months (D) 02 years (E) First time


08 When was the first Nimaz Eid-ul-Filr read?
(A) lstRamzan (2Hijn) (B) 08th Muharram(03 Hijri) (C) 1st Shawal (2 Hijri) (D) 8th Rabi-ul-Awai (4th Hijri)


09 One Kilobyte is:
(A) 1000 bytes (B) 1024 bytes (C) 10,000 bytes (D) 10 megabytes -

10 CNC refers to:
(A) Anti-Nuclear movement (B) Computer controlled machines
(C) Nuclear reactors (D) Naval computers

11 Kim ball Tags arc small punched cards attached to:
(A) Garments (B) Identity cards (C) Groceries (D) Cell phones (E) Lap - lop computer

12 "Fuzzy logic" is a part of:
(A) Aristotle's philosophy (ft) Computer science (C) Epicurianism (D) Sophism

13 Which is an endangered species?
(A) Indus blind dolphin (B) Markhor (C) Dromedory (D) Water buffalo (E) Jelly fish

14 Periodontics deals with:
(A) Surgery of spine (B) Dentistry (C) Ligaments restoration. (D) Stomach disorders, (E) Heart attacks

15 The National tree of Pakistan is: (A) Keeker (B) Deodar (C) Peepal (D) Eucalyptus (E) Mango.

16 Rowlatt act passed in 1 919 led to the:
(A) Julianwala Bagh tragedy (B) Meerut conspiracy (C) Indian mutiny (D) Hindu -Muslim riots (E) Congress-Muslim League split

17 In 1953 the constituent assembly had. (a) 79 members (B) 85 members (C) 320 members (D) 150 members

18 Antiquities act of 1975 deals with:
(A) Destruction and defacing of antiques (B) Preservation of artifacts
(C) Sale of antiques (D) History of antiquities (E)Archaeological diggings

19 Bupsi Sidhwa is famous:
(A) Writer (B) Historian (C) Activist for women's rights (D) Sociologist

20 Moulana Ubaidullah Sindhi spoused and preached:
(A) Unitarian philosophy (B) Hindu -Muslim unity (C) Unification of Bengal (D) Separation of Church and stale.

21 The term "Googly" is associated with:
(A) Hockey (B) Football (C) Cricket (D) Tennis (E) Tax laws


22 Which of the following is not true about Ameer Khushro?
(A) Poet (B) Courtier (C) Historian (D) Musician (E) Soldier.



23 NEQS refer to:
(A) Environment (B) Upper atmosphere (C) Sea- bed (D) Continental shelf

24 ICAO'S headquarters are located in:
(A) New York (B) Montreal (C) Ottowa (D) Geneva (E) Brussels

25 ICAO is a U.N, agency dealing with;
(A) White collar crimes (B) Civil Aviation. (C) Main time shipping (D) Drug smuggling

26 FIFA deals with:
(A) Tennis (B) Motor car racing (C) Soccer (D) Baseball (E) cricket.

27 The Tules Rimet Trophy was won by:
(A) Brazil (B) Argentian (C) Italy (D) Germany (B) South Africa

28 Mr. Zuifiquar Ale Bhutto was; -
(A) President (B) Prime Minister (C) CMLA (D) All three.

29 The AGNI is a:
(A) ICBM (B) SSM (medium range) (C) Hindu Cult (D) Indian Political party (E) Name of ship

30The Universal declaration of Human rights was adopted in:
(A) 1948 (B) 1945 (C) 1949 (D) 1928 (E)1956

31. Diego Garcia is home to:
(A) NATO troops (B) British troops (C) US Navy and Air force (D) Indian Navy (E) Australian Navy


32 Ex-President Solobodan Milosovjch is under trial by:
(A) International Court of Justice (B) Special war crimes Tribunal (C) Old Bailey (D) Scottish Court (E) Lincolns Inn


33The fact that heat flows naturally from a hotter body to a cooler body is a consequence of which of the following principles of physics?
(A) Ideal gas law (B) Conservation of charge (C) Conservation of momentum (D) First law of thermodynamics (E) Second law of thermodynamics (Entropy increase)


34 Algebra is derived from……….. language;
(A) Arabic (B) Sanskrit (C) Latin (D) Greek


35 The shortest distance between two points is cabled:
(A) curved line (B) straight line (C) obtuse angle (D) Acute angle,


36 The boiling point of Fahrenheit thermometer is;
(A) 121° (B) 212° (C) 100° (D) Zero


37 Sun is_____ times larger than earth:
(A) 14,00000 (B) 13,0000 (C) 900,000 (D) 11,00000


38 Pakistan is situated in ……….. region:
(A) Post-monsoon (B) Monsoon (C) Cold weather (D) Hot weather


39 The fastest swimming fish is:
(A) Dolphin (B) Whale (C) Shark (D) Star fish.


40 The chemical name of chalk is:
(a) Sodium Hydroxide (B) Calcium Carbonate (C) Calcium sulphate (D) Sodium Bi-carbonate.


41 The term CPU stands for:
(A) Control processing un:-t (B) Central processing unit (C) Copy processing unit (D) correct processing unit


42 Which of the following does not react with a dilute H2, SO4 solution?
(A) NaNo3 (B) Na2 S (C) Na3 PO4 (D) Na2 CO3 (E) NaOH


43 Which of the following gases in Least dense when all are measured under the same conditions.
(A) CO2 (B) Cl2 (C) SO2 (D) H2 (E) NO


44 The oxygen produced during photosynthesis is derived from ;
(A) Glucose (C6 H12 O6) (B) CO2 (C). H2O (D) Ribulose Bisphosphate (E) ATP


45 For which of the following values of k will the value of 3k -1 be greater than 10?
(A) 4 (B) 3 (C)2 (D) 1 (E) 0


46 Which of the following numbers is between 1/5 and 1/4?

(A) 0.14 (B) 0.15 (C) 0.19 (D) 0.21 (E) 0.26


47 If 2x – 10=20, then x –5=
(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 20 (E) 30


48 If there is no waste, how many square yards of carpeting is needed to cover a rectangular floor that is 12 feet by 18 feet?
(A) 8 (B) 16 (C) 24 (D) 30 (E) 216.


49If the volume of a cube is 8 , what is the shortest distance from the centre of the cube to the base of the cube?
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) under root 2 (E) 2 under root 2


50 Most amphibians are characterized by all of the following except:
(A) Simple lungs (B) Multichambered heart (C) eggs protected by shells (D) larvae that developed in water (E) external fertilization


Sunday the 08th September 2002
2.00.P.M. to 3.00.P.M................................Max: marks: 100

NOTE : READ INSTRUCTIONS MOST CAREFULLY.
1 . Write your NAME, FATHER'S NAME, ROLL NUMBER on Answer sheet only.
2. Write total number of questions attempted in Column provided
3. Use Blue /Black Ball point only
4. Write answers on answer sheet only
5. On completion hand in Answer sheet to Supervisor/Invigilator
Cross appropriate box on answer sheet only.

SPSC Paper for the post of Mukhtiarkar

Sindh Public Service Commission, Hyderabad
Paper-I .......ENGLISH -language /comprehension
Written Test for Recruitment to the post of Mukhtiarkar



Sunday the 08th September 2002
Time 10.30.A..M. to 12.00 Noon..................Max: marks:100

QUESTION NO: MARKS


01 Make a precis of the following passage and give it a suitable title: 40


Any one who trains animals recognize that human and animal perceptual capacities are different. For most humans, .seeing is believing, although we do occasionally brood about whether we can believe our eyes. The other senses are largely ancillary; most of usdo not know how we might go about either doubting or believing our noses. But for dogs, scenting is believing. A dog's nose is to ours as the wrinkled surface of our complex brain is to the surface of an egg. A dog who did comparative psychology might easily worry about our consciousness or lack thereof, just as we worry about the consciousness of a squid.
We who take sight for granted can draw pictures of scent, but we have no language for doing it the other way about, no way to represent something visually familiar by means of actual scent. Most humans cannot know, with their limited noses, what they can imagine about being deaf, blind; mute or paralyzed. The sighted can, for example, speak of a blind person as "In the darkness", but there is no corollary expression for what it is that we are in relationship to scent. If we tried to coin words, we might come up with something like "scent-blind". But what would it mean? It couldn't have the sort of meaning that "colour - blind", and "tone –deaf" do because most of us have experienced what "tone" and "colour" mean in those expressions, but we don't know what "scent" means in the expression "scent-blind". Scent for may of us can be only a theoretical, technical expression that we use because our grammar requires that we have a noun to go in the sentences we are prompted to utter about animals tracking. We don’t have sense of scent. What we do have is a sense of smell-for food and skunks and a number of things we call chemicals.
So if my dog and I are sitting on the terrace, admiring the view, we inhabit World with radically different principles of phenomenology. Say that the wind is to our backs. Our world lies al! Before us, within a 180 degree angle. The dog's……….well wedon't know, do we?
He sees roughly the same things that Isee but he believes the scents of the garden behind us. He marks the path of the black - and -white cat as she moves among the roses in search of the bits of chicken sandwich I let fall as 1 walked from the house to our picnic spot. 1 can show that the dog is alert to the kitty, but not how for my picture -making modes of thought too easily supply falsifyingly literal representations of the cat and the garden and their modes of being hidden from or revealed to me.

02 English Comprehension: 20

The passage above isfollowed by questions based on its contents. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied in each Passage. Write the correct answer.

(a) The phrase "other senses are largely ancillary" is used by the Author to suggest that;
(i) only those events experienced directly can be appreciated by the senses
(ii) For many human beings the sense of sight is the primary means of knowing about the world
(iii) Smell is in many respects a more powerful sense than Sight
(iv) People rely on atleast one of their other senses in order to confirm what they are
(v) The perceptual capacity of an animal is a function of its ability to integrate all of its senses.


(b)The example in the last paragraph suggests that "Principles of Phenomenology" mentioned in can best be defined as:
(i) Memorable things that happen
(ii) Behaviour caused by certain kinds of perception
(iii) Ways and means of knowing about something
(iv) Rules one uses to determine the philosophical truth about a certain things
(v) Effect of a single individuals perception on what others believe


(c) The missing phrase in the complete sentence, "The dog's………….well We don't know, do we?" refers to:
(i) colour blindness
(ii) depth perception
(iii) perception of the world
(iv) concern for our perceptions
(v) motivation for action


(d)The author uses the distinction between "that" and "how" in order to suggest the difference between:
(i) Seeing and believing
(ii) A cat's way arid a dogs way of perceiving
(iii) Verifiable hypotheses and whimsical speculation
(iv) Awareness of presence and the nature of that awareness
(v) false representations and accurate representative


(e) The example in thelast paragraph is used to illustrate how:
(i) a dog's perception differs from a human's
(ii) human beings are not psychologically rooted in the natural world
(iii) People fear nature but animals are part of it
(iv) A dogs ways of seeing are superior to a cats .
(v) Phenomenology is universal and constant


03 For each question below select the best answer from among the choices given: 20

(i) Residents of a secluded island fear that …………………commercial development Will………their quiet way of life.
(A) widespread ......... ..reinforce
(B) waning .........Harm
(C) Diminishing ……..reform
(D) encroaching ....... disturb
(E) further ............... aid.


(ii) Though it is often exclusively…………Brazil, the Amazon jungle actually…….parts of eight other South American countries.
(A) protected by ..... .,..,,... threatens
(B) located in .... .......... bypasses
(C) Limited to ............ touches
(D) surrounded by ........ borders
(E) associated with ... .......... covers


(iii) On the verge of financial collapse, the museum was granted a……,receiving a much-needed…….of cash in the form of a Government loan.
(A) reprieve............. infusion
(B) determent.......... inducement
(C) rebate............... Advance
(D) hearing............. security
(E) procurement...... Account


(iv) Galloping technological progress has made consumers………:advances undreamed of a generation age are so common that they seem humdrum.
(A) Flabbergasted (B) miffed (C) jaded (D) wary (E) embittered


(v) Laila performed her tasks at the office with…………….completing all her projects in record time.
(A) alacrity (B) conformity (C) deliberation (D) recrimination
(E) exasperation


04 Each question consists of a related pair of words or phrases followed by five pairs ofwords or phrases (A through E). Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair:........................20


(i) Audience : Theater
(A) Crew : ship (B) scholars : library (C) group : society
(D) Spectators: Arena (E) Actors :stage

(ii) Quart : Volume
(A) day : night (B) mile : distance (C) decade : century (D) Friction : heat (E) part : whole,

(iii) Abrasive : Skin
(A) Flammable : fire (B) resilient: shock (C) Soluble : water ,(D) Corrosive: iron (E) responsive : stimulus

(iv) Canal : Waterway
(A) skyline : city (B) bank : stream (C) hule : Wheel
(D) dam : rive: (E) reservoir : lake

(v) Throng : People
(A) game : players (B) picnic : woods (C) swarm : insects

(D) cat : kittens. (E) vase : flowers

(vi) Ethics : Morality
(A) premise: induction (B) jurisprudence : law (C) logic : error (D) taboo : custom (E) proof: generalization

(vii) Aberration : Standard
(A) Censorship : news (B) statement : Policy (C) detour : route (D) rumour : gossip (E)encore : performance

(viii) Compass : Navigation
(A) Physician : disease (B) pilot : flight (C) clock : dial (D) camera : photography (E) map : area

(ix) Quibble : Criticism
(A) Sermon : duty (B) jeer : respect (C) source ; information

(D) tiff : quarrel (E) scandal : disgrace

(x) Glower : Anger.
(A) Sneer : contempt (B) grin : expression (C) fidget : movement (D) console : grief (E) slander : accusation

Sunday, July 17, 2011

Allama Iqbals Presidential Address at Allahabad 1930

Allama Iqbal’s Presidential Address at Allahabad
 
29 December 1930.

Iqbal found a God sent opportunity as he was elected as the president of Allahabad Session of the All India Muslim League. He took full advantage of this session for communicating his thoughts and his dream for a separate state, Pakistan.

Important points:

Following were the important points of his address: India. India comprising of Punjab, sindh, Balochistan and NWFP.
Islam is a complete code of life. And Muslims are a nation. There is no harmony between Muslims and Hindus in
A separate homeland for the Muslims of
He Said "I would like to see the Punjab, North-West FrontierProvinces , Sindh and Balochistan into a single State. Self-Government within the British Empireor without the British Empire. The formation of the consolidated North-West IndianMuslimStateappears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the North-West India."Two Nation Theory. Suggestions for the constitution. (He was against the central legislative assembly and wanted assembly of representative of federal States).
Muslim Representation in the British Indian Assembly shall be 1/3rd.
Lahore wrote about Allama Muhammad Iqbal that he is a dangerous Muslim of North Western India. Lahore a Hindu Columnist wrote "Iqbal Wanted to snatch the country of Hindus from them and to give it to the Muslims.
Iqbal earned the title of "Dreamer of Pakistan" for Himself.


Chaudary Rehmat Ali, born in 1879, a student at Cambridge, published a pamphlet "Now or Never" in 1933. He supported the fact that Muslims of subcontinent are a separate nation and they should have their separate homeland. He also coined the word "Pakistan" and included Kashmir. This term, Pakistan, stands for Land of Pure.
Hindu Reaction: Hindus reacted against the demand of separate home land by Iqbal. An editorial in daily Partab,
In Daily Inqalab,
Muslims supported his ideas. And News papers like Daily Hindu and Daily hamdam supported him and propagated his message and ideas through the Subcontinent.
 
 
Round Table conferences
It was launched by Gandhi because at that point he demanded implementation of Nehru report in Toto.
The civil disobedience movement was declared illegal and Gandhi was arrested.
First Round Table Conference: (12 November 1930to
Quaid-e-Azam.
Sir Agha Khan
Muhammad Ali Jauhur.
Maulvi Fazl Haq.
Sir Muhammad Shafi
B. S. Moonje and M.R. Jayakar
Liberals: Tej Bahadur Sapru, C. Y. Chintamani and Srinivasa Sastri
Sikh: Sardar Ujjal Singh
Depressed Classes: B. R. Ambedkar
Princely states: Akbar Hydari (Dewan of Hyderabad), Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore), Kailas Narain Haksar of Gwalior, Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda, Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner, Nawab Hamidullah Khan of Bhopal, K.S. Ranjitsinhji of Nawanagar, Maharaja Jai Singh Prabhakar of Alwar and the rulers of Indore, Rewa, Dholpur, Koriya, Sangli and Sarila.


Important decision made in conference: India (Executive will be responsible to legislature). Fully representative government, responsible to provincial and federal legislature will be made. (Note: In Nehru report Hindu Wanted Strong Central Govt. while Muslims demanded for loose federation in Jinnah’s 14 Points). The princely states will also be supported.


Gandhi Irwin Pact: 5th March 1931 between Gandhi and Irwin.
Quaid-e-Azam did not participate in second Round table conference and decided to remain aloof from the Indian politics and to practice as a professional lawyer in England.
Hindu Mahasabha:
Approval of federal system for
Sapru’s proposal of dominion status and abolition of diarchy in the provinces.
Deadlock: Deadlock occurred on the distribution of subjects in the federal system
From 17-19 February 1931 talks were held between Gandhi and Irwin.
An agreement was signed on
Why these Talks were held and Agreement was signed?
Because of the failure of civil disobedience movement.
Government’s desire for congress participation in round table as congress was absent in first round table conference.
Salient features of Gandhi Irwin Pact:
The congress will call of civil disobedience. The congress will attend second round table conference.
The government will withdraw all cases against congress and release prisoners.
The pact shows that the British government was anxious to bring the congress to round table conference. It was triumph of the congress and Indian Nationalism.
Second Round Table Conference
Communal Awards, August16, 1932.
Communal representation of Muslims:
accepted.
Sindh was awarded the status of separate province.
Principle of Wieghtage was applied (Muslim lost majority in
Communal Scheme for Non Muslim:
Award declared untouchables as a minority and thus the Hindus depressed classes were given a number of special seats. And as result
Separate electorates for scheduled class Hindus were approved.
Hindu Reaction:
Third Round Table Conference/ Joint Select committee
The report of three round table conferences was published in a white paper in 1933 and later on it was discussed in the British parliament. As a resulted a bill was drafted which was approved and became Indian Act of 1935.
(17th November to 25th December 1932) Quaid-e-Azam did not participate. Sir Agha khan participated. In third round table conference reports of various communities were scrutinized.
It was decided to setup a federal legislature in
India consisting of elected representatives of the British India and of the representatives of the state to be nominated by respective ruler.
Because of the deadlock over communal issues British government announced communal awards.



( 7 September 1931to 1st December 1931) Gandhi was the sole representative of All
Allama Iqbal in his speech said in 2nd round table conference.
Two committees were formed i.e.
Conference on federal structure.
Conference on Minorities.
Gandhi’s showed stubborn attitude to secure
Communal problems Remained Unsolved
India National Congress Allama Iqbal participated in 2nd round table conference because of the death of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhur. India as one nation. Gandhi claimed that he represented all India and dismissed all other Indian delegates as non-representatives. Hindu Muslim relations embittered. Punjab, Sikh got advantage in Punjab, Europeans got advantage in Bengal because of principle of Wieghtage).
Gandhi took fast until death on account of accepting scheduled class Hindus as separate nation and giving them right of separate electorate. Dr. Ambedkar, leader of untouchable made an agreement to withdraw from the right of separate electorate under Poona Pact. Gandhi ended his fast.
19th January 1931)

Muslim Leaders: following Muslim leaders participated.



1930-1932
Lord Irwin invited the leaders of political parties of India.
Objective: To formulate future constitution of India in the light of suggestions given by the Indian Leaders.

Civil Disobedience Movement (April 1930):

Simon commission 1927




The other section of the League, which boycotted the Simon Commission for its all-White character, cooperated with the Nehru Committee, appointed by the All-Parties Conference, to draft a constitution for India. The Nehru Report had an extremely anti-Muslim bias and the Congress leadership's refusal to amend it disillusioned even the moderate Muslims. Allama Muhammad Iqbal Several leaders and thinkers, having insight into the Hindu-Muslim question proposed separation of Muslim India. However, the most lucid exposition of the inner feeling of the Muslim community was given by Allama Muhammad Iqbal(1877-1938) in his Presidential Address at the All-India Muslim League Session at Allahabad in 1930. He suggested that for the healthy development of Islam in South-Asia, it was essential to have a separate Muslim state at least in the Muslim majority regions of the north-west. Later on, in his correspondence with Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he included the Muslim majority areas in the north-east also in his proposed Muslim state. Three years after his Allahabad Address, a group of Muslim students at Cambridge, headed by Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, issued a pamphlet, Now or Never, in which drawing letters from the names of the Muslim majority regions, they gave the nomenclature of "Pakistan" to the proposed State. Very few even among the Muslim welcomed the idea at the time. It was to take a decade for the Muslims to embrace the demand for a separate Muslim state. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Meanwhile, three Round Table Conferences were convened in London during 1930-32, to resolve the Indian constitutional problem. The Hindu and Muslim leaders, who were invited to these conferences, could not draw up an agreed formula and the British Government had to announce a `Communal Award' which was incorporated in the Government of India Act of 1935. Before the elections under this Act, the All-India Muslim League, which had remained dormant for some time, was reorganized by Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who had returned to India in 1934,after an absence of nearly five years in England. The Muslim League could not win a majority of Muslim seats since it had not yet been effectively reorganized. However, it had the satisfaction that the performance of the Indian National Congress in the Muslim constituencies was bad. After the elections, the attitude of the Congress leadership was arrogant and domineering. The classic example was its refusal to form a coalition government with the Muslim League in the United Provinces. Instead, it asked the League leaders to dissolve their parliamentary arty in the Provincial Assembly and join the Congress. Another important Congress move after the 1937 elections was its Muslim mass contact movement to persuade the Muslims to join the Congress and not the Muslim League. One of its leaders, Jawaharlal Nehru, even declared that there were only two forces in India, the British and the Congress. All this did not go unchallenged.

Khilafat movement

Khilafat movement

The Hindu Muslim unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-cooperation Movements. The Muslims of soothsayer, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, launched the historic Khilafat Movement after the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) linked the issue of Swaraj (self-government) with the Khilafat issue to associate the Hindus with the Movement. the ensuing Movement was the first countrywide popular movement.

Although the Movement failed in its objectives, it had a far-reaching impact on the Muslims of South Asia. After a long time, they took united action on a purely Islamic issue which momentarily forged solidarity among them. It also produced a class of Muslim leaders experienced in organizing and mobilizing the public. This experience was of immense value to the Muslims later during the Pakistan Movement The collapse of the Khilafat Movement was followed by a period of bitter Hindu Muslim antagonism. The Hindus organized two highly anti Muslim movements, the Shudhi and the Sangathan. The former movement was designed to convert Muslims to Hinduism and the latter was meant to create solidarity among the Hindus in the event of communal conflict. In retaliation, the Muslims sponsored the Tabligh and Tanzim organizations to counter the impact of the Shudhi and the Sangathan. In the 1920s, the frequency of communal riots was unprecedented. Several Hindu-Muslim unity conferences were held to remove the causes of conflict, but, it seemed nothing could mitigate the intensity of communalism. Muslim Demand Safeguards In the light of this situation, the Muslims revised their constitutional demands. They now wanted preservation of their numerical majorities in the Punjab and Bengal, separation of Sindh from Bombay, constitution of Balochistan as a separate province and introduction of constitutional reforms in the North-West Frontier Province. It was partly to press these demands that one section of the All-India Muslim League cooperated with the Statutory commission sent by the British Government under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon in 1927.

Two Nation Theory The Myth The Reality

Two Nation Theory: The Myth, The Reality


"One lesson I have learnt from the history of Muslims. At critical moments in their history it is Islam that has saved Muslims and not vice versa." (Sir Muhammad Iqbal)

Why Ideology of Pakistan is Important:  Today the world community comprises of more than 180 countries. Pakistan appeared on the world map in August 1947, and became the first Islamic ideological state of the modern times. Unlike the non-ideological states, it was not established due to any geographical conflict or territorial domination by a group of people. If the ideology of such a state like Pakistan is dead then its existence can be questioned. Therefore, Pakistan can’t exist if there is no more ideology of Pakistan.

Pakistan is an ideological state…established in the name of the Islam. But on the 31st of December 1971, this land of ours, lost its east wing. And East Pakistan emerged on the world map as Bangladesh. The then prime minister of India Ms. Indra Gandhi claimed that the birth of Bangladesh is the death of the two-nation theory… If, as said, the ideology of Pakistan came to an end in 1971, then the objective behind the creation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan would have come to an end too.

Purpose of Pakistan

The breakup of the country in 1971 raised cynical eyebrows about national identity and gave rise to the theory of sub-nationalities on the basis of race, religion and language. Thus questions are being asked about the very existence of Pakistan.

The debate about the motivating force behind the making of Pakistan has been one endless exercise. Was there any need of Pakistan at all? Is this just another Muslim state like many others? Was creation of Pakistan a conspiracy of the British and/or of Muslim League? Was it to retrieve the ancient glory of the Islamic era, or to find a base for the reconstruction of Islamic thought and the resurgence and re-adaptation of its message to our day and age? Was Pakistan created accidentally? Was the sacrifice of thousands of Muslims in 1947 useless? Should Pakistan and India be merged together to form "Akhand Bharat" to restore peace in the Sub-continent?

What is Two Nation Theory?

Two-Nation theory is the basis of creation of Pakistan. It states that Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations from every definition; therefore Muslims should have a separate homeland in the Muslim majority areas of India, where they can spend their lives according to the glorious teachings of Islam.

If Muslims of the sub-continent comprise an Islamic nation then they have the right to have separate homeland as Muhammad Ali Jinnah, (in his address to the annual session of Muslim League) mentioned and I quote:
"History has presented to us many examples, such as the Union of Great Britain and Ireland, of Czechoslovakia and Poland. History has also shown to us many geographical tracts, much smaller than the sub-continent of India, which otherwise might have been called one country, but which have been divided into as many seven or eight sovereign states. Like-wise, the Portuguese and the Spanish stand divided in the Iberian Peninsula."

The Definition Of Nation

The significance and reality of Pakistan has not been fully understood in the west. To the west, nationality based on religion is an alien and often-incomprehensible phenomenon. This is because religion in the West has come to play such a restricted role. In the West, Germans and French are accepted as two separate nations. However, the fact of Hindus and Muslims in India representing two separate cultural entities is seldom appreciated. A young French student may visit a family in Germany, share their meals, may attend the same church and even marry a girl in the family without creating a scandal or surprise. But such instances of intermarriage have been extremely rare in the Indo-Pak Sub-Continent. Even some of the most ardent Indian Nationalist has found the idea totally unacceptable. As Sir Abdur Rahim observed:
"Any of us Indian Muslims traveling for instances in Afghanistan, Persia and Central Asia among Chinese Muslims, Arabs and Turks, would at once be made at home and would not find anything to which we are not accustomed. On the contrary, in India we find ourselves in all social matters total aliens when we cross the street and enter that part of the town where our Hindu fellow townsmen live."
Is Two Nation Theory A New Concept
A point generally raised by the opponent of the two-nation theory is that Pakistan was created accidentally and that the intellect of most of the Muslims at that time was overpowered by emotions. Moreover, that this phenomenon emerged in the early decade of the 20th century.

But, what the history reveals is something different. Two-Nation theory was not at all as new phenomenon.

History of Two Nation Theory

Mahatma Gandhi, speaking in the second session of the Round table conference in London in 1931, said that the quarrel between Hindus and Muslims was ‘coreview with the British advent’ in India. It would be difficult to maintain such a position historically because the conflict between Hindus and Muslims had started long before the emergence of the British power in India.

The phenomenon of Two-Nation theory originated with the advent of Islam in the Sub-Continent (712AD). According to Jinnah, "The concept of two nation theory originated the day, the first Hindu converted to Muslim."

The partition of India was proposed more than seven hundred years prior to the Lahore resolution. In 1192 AD, on the eve of battle of Tarian, according to famous historian Farishta, Sultan Muizz-ud-Din had suggested to his rival, Pirthviraj, the partition of India, leaving the region of Sirhind, Punjab and Multan with Sultan and retaining the rest of India for himself. This proposal cropped up again after 150 years, when Al-Beruni pointed out the existence of the two big groups of people subscribing to two different religions.

"This (the religious difference) renders any connection with them" says Beruni, "quite impossible and constitutes the widest of gulf between them and us (Hindu and Muslims)."

Perhaps Emperor Aurengzeb (1658-1707) was responsible for increasing Hindu Muslim tensions by trying to Islamize the Mughal government. Several Muslim historians have actually glorified Aurengzeb for making Muslims conscious of their separate religious and ideological identity. It is also true that Maratha and Sikh leaders raised their banner of revolt against Aurangzeb because in trying to organize his government on Islamic lines, the emperor was acting against their interest. Sir Jaduanath Sarkar’s observation on the role of Shivaji, the Maratha leader, is revealing:
"Shivaji has shown that the tree of Hinduism is not really dead. That it can rise from beneath the seemingly crushing load of centuries of political bondage, exclusion from the administration, and legal repression; it can put forth new leaves and branches it can again lift its head up to the skies"
After Aurangzeb’s death, Muslim power started disintegrating. Muslims were so alarmed by the growing power of the Hindus under Maratha leadership that even a Sufi scholar like Shah Walliullha (1703-81) was moved into writing a letter to the Afghan King Shah Walliullah. He wrote:
"In short, the Muslim community is in a pitiable condition. All control of the machinery of government is in the hands of Hindus, because they are the only people who are capable and industrious. Wealth and prosperity are concentrated in their hands; while the share of Muslims is nothing but poverty and misery… At this time you are the only King who is powerful, far-sighted, and capable of defeating the enemy forces. Certainly it is incumbent upon you to march to India, destroy the Maratha domination and rescue weak and old Muslims from the clutches of Non-Muslims. If, God forbid, domination by infidels continues, Muslims will forget Islam and within a short time become such a nation that there will be nothing left distinguish them from non-Muslims."

This letter by Shah Walliullah to a foreign Muslim against the local Non-Muslims again reflects that Muslims living in any part of the world are the part of one Muslim Nation.


The Two Nations

Although the Hindus and Muslims had been living together for centuries in the Indian sub-continent, yet there had never been either any signs of merger of the Hindu and Muslims societies, or any serious attempt to develop a working relationship between the two major ethnic groups. The two have always remained as two distinct social systems, two separate and distinct cultures and last but not the least, two different civilizations.

In fact, Hindu fanaticism has always been against those who do not belong to them and against all outsiders, whom they consider maleech or unclean. So they are against having any connection with such people, what to speak of inter-marriage, a Hindu is often forbidden eat or drink or to even shake hand with a Muslim or for that matter with a person belonging to any other faith or religion. In short the Hindu customs and their hatred for Muslims was the main factor against developing a working relationship between the two major societies.

Lala Lajpat Rai, a very astute politician and staunch Hindu Mahasabhite, in his letter to Mr. C.R. Das, which was written 12 or 15 years prior to Pakistan Resolution, wrote:
"There is one point more which has been troubling me very much of late and one which I want you to think (about) carefully, and that is the question of Hindu Mohammedan unity. I have devoted most of my time during the last six months to the study of Muslim history and Muslim law, and I am inclined to think it is neither possible nor practicable. Assuming and admitting the sincerity of Mohammedan leaders in the non-cooperation movement, I think their religion provides an effective bar to anything of that kind… And nothing would relieve more than to be convinced that it is so. But if it is right, then it comes to this, that although we can unite against the British, we cannot do so to rule Hindustan on British lines. We cannot do so to rule Hindustan on democratic lines."

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, (in his address to the annual session of Muslim League) mentioned:
"It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different social orders. It is a dream that the Hindu and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality; and this misconception of one Indian nation has gone far beyond the limits, and is the cause of most of our troubles, and will lead India to destruction, if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry, nor interline together and indeed they belong to two different civilizations, which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Musalmans derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, their heroes are different, and they have different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other, and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and the final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state."

Is Pakistan a Conspiracy of British And/Or Jinnah

For the congress, the establishment of Pakistan was a cruel blow to their claim of being a nationalist organization. It meant that Muslims did not trust the Hindus as a majority community to be just and generous towards Muslims interests and culture. This explains why congress leaders have often tended to attribute the creation of Pakistan almost entirely to the British policy of ‘divide and rule’.

However, a closer look at the history after the establishment of the British rule in India will reveal that the Hindus were much closer to the British government than the Muslims. The Hindus, who were fed up with the Muslim rule, welcomed the British rule over India. This state of affairs resulted in the patronage of the Hindus by the British and suspicion and distrust against the Muslims of the sub-continent. The Hindus were economically better off than the Muslims. The events of 1857 further diminished the prospects of economic growth of the Muslim community in the sub-continent. From 1857 onwards, when the British had taken complete control of the Indian Administration, they elevated the Hindu community to the status of landlords, gave the Hindus proprietary rights and provided them the opportunity to accumulate the wealth which should have otherwise gone to the Muslims who were at the helm of affairs.

Hindus were given more jobs in the government and military compared to Muslims.

Lets now look see whether the establishment of Pakistan in 1947 as the largest Muslim state was a conspiracy of Jinnah. Muhammad Ali Jinnah remained an active member of the Indian National Congress for about 25 years, and because of his personal efforts to bring about a rapprochement between Hindus and Muslims was even hailed as the ‘Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity’. As long as effective power in India was in the hands of the British, it appeared as if a true nationalism was growing in that country. However, with the introduction of representative institutions and the devolution of political authority, the Hindus started showing their true colors by imposing their superiority over the Muslim minority, as a result of which a struggle between Hindus and Muslims ensued. Jinnah was greatly disappointed by these movements by the congress leaders and so he resigned from the Congress. The behavior of the Congress leader changed his mind and realized him that the Congress is a Hindu Congress.
Another popular view regards Pakistan as no more than a personal triumph of the brilliant strategy and will power of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that had Jinnah died earlier, there would not have been any Pakistan. It is true that Jinnah’s great role was a highly important contributing factor; but without intense religious zeal for an Islamic state on the part of Muslim masses, Jinnah could not have achieved Pakistan. Khilafat leaders like Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and poets like Hali, Akbar Allahabdi and Iqbal were mainly responsible for making Muslims conscious of their separate national and cultural identity. Thus, when the message of Pakistan was presented to the masses, it fell on fertile soil. Jinnah, who did not know Urdu, could not have achieved Pakistan without able and zealous lieutenants and without the vision of an Islamic state as an inspiring stimulant. One may even go so far as to say that the Muslim League, led largely by the middle-class Muslim Leaders, would have probably come to some sort of compromise on the issue of Pakistan had they not been swept off their feet by the intense Islamic fervor of the masses and the astounding success that the Muslim League achieved during the elections of 1945-46. It has been reported that the Quaid-e-Azam himself never expected to see Pakistan in his lifetime.
Congress leaders tried to challenge the two-nation theory by pointing out that a large number of Muslims in India were descendants of Hindu forebears who had converted to Islam. They also argued that there was hardly any cultural difference between Hindus and Muslims in the rural areas where the vast majority of both communities lived. But these arguments could not alter the fact that a change in one’s religion from Hinduism to Islam in the Indian context not merely implied a change in one’s religion, but also a significant change in man’s social and cultural status. The new convert became the member of an egalitarian social and cultural force in large parts of India. Particularly in the North Western part of India, which constitutes Pakistan today, the dominant culture that emerged was clearly Islam.
Another popular view regards Pakistan as no more than a personal triumph of the brilliant strategy and will power of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that had Jinnah died earlier, there would not have been any Pakistan. It is true that Jinnah’s great role was a highly important contributing factor; but without intense religious zeal for an Islamic state on the part of Muslim masses, Jinnah could not have achieved Pakistan. Khilafat leaders like Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and poets like Hali, Akbar Allahabdi and Iqbal were mainly responsible for making Muslims conscious of their separate national and cultural identity. Thus, when the message of Pakistan was presented to the masses, it fell on fertile soil. Jinnah, who did not know Urdu, could not have achieved Pakistan without able and zealous lieutenants and without the vision of an Islamic state as an inspiring stimulant. One may even go so far as to say that the Muslim League, led largely by the middle-class Muslim Leaders, would have probably come to some sort of compromise on the issue of Pakistan had they not been swept off their feet by the intense Islamic fervor of the masses and the astounding success that the Muslim League achieved during the elections of 1945-46. It has been reported that the Quaid-e-Azam himself never expected to see Pakistan in his lifetime.
Congress leaders tried to challenge the two-nation theory by pointing out that a large number of Muslims in India were descendants of Hindu forebears who had converted to Islam. They also argued that there was hardly any cultural difference between Hindus and Muslims in the rural areas where the vast majority of both communities lived. But these arguments could not alter the fact that a change in one’s religion from Hinduism to Islam in the Indian context not merely implied a change in one’s religion, but also a significant change in man’s social and cultural status. The new convert became the member of an egalitarian social and cultural force in large parts of India. Particularly in the North Western part of India, which constitutes Pakistan today, the dominant culture that emerged was clearly Islam.

Lahore Resolution 1940

Lahore Resolution [1940]
From March 22 to March 24, 1940, the All India Muslim League held its annual session at Minto Park, Lahore. This session proved to be historical.
On the first day of the session, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah narrated the events of the last few months. In an extempore speech he presented his own solution of the Muslim problem. He said that the problem of India was not of an inter-communal nature, but manifestly an international one and must be treated as such. To him the differences between Hindus and the Muslims were so great and so sharp that their union under one central government was full of serious risks. They belonged to two separate and distinct nations and therefore the only chance open was to allow them to have separate states.

In the words of Quaid-i-Azam: "Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations that are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other, and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state".

He further said, "Mussalmans are a nation according to any definition of nation. We wish our people to develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people".
On the basis of the above mentioned ideas of the Quaid, A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq, the then Chief Minister of Bengal, moved the historical resolution which has since come to be known as Lahore Resolution or Pakistan Resolution.

The Resolution declared: "No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign".

It further reads, "That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities, with their consultation. Arrangements thus should be made for the security of Muslims where they were in a minority".

The Resolution repudiated the concept of United India and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state consisting of Punjab, N. W. F. P., Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and Bengal and Assam in the northeast. The Resolution was seconded by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the N. W. F. P., Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, along with many others.
The Resolution was passed on March 24. It laid down only the principles, with the details left to be worked out at a future date. It was made a part of the All India Muslim League's constitution in 1941. It was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for one state for the Muslims, instead of two.

Having passed the Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims of India changed their ultimate goal. Instead of seeking alliance with the Hindu community, they set out on a path whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India

Fourteen Points of M A

Fourteen Points of M. A.Jinah
These points were as follows:
1. The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.
2. A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
3. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
4. In the Central Legislative, Muslim representation shall not be less than one-third.
5. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at present, provided it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of a joint electorate.
6. Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and the North West Frontier Province.  
7. Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities. 
8. No bill or any resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourth of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases. 
9. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay presidency
10. Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in the other provinces.

11. Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.

12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institution and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies.

13. No cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers.

14. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the State's contribution of the Indian Federation.

The council of the All India Muslim League accepted fourteen points of the Quaid. A resolution was passed according to which no scheme for the future constitution of the Government of India would be acceptable to the Muslims unless and until it included the demands of the Quaid presented in the fourteen points.A positive aspect of Nehru Report was that it resulted in the unity of divided Muslim groups. In a meeting of the cJinnah [1929]

Lucknow Pact December 1916

Lucknow Pact, (December 1916Lucknow Pact, (December 1916), agreement made by the Indian National Congres headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah; it was adopted by the Congress at its Lucknow session on December 29 and by the league on Dec. 31, 1916.

The Lucknow Pact 1916 Points
1. There shall be self-government in India.
2. Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government.
3. There should be separate electorates for all the communities until a community demanded for joint electorates.
4. System of weightage should be adopted.
5. The number of the members of Central Legislative Council should be increased to 150.
6. At the provincial level, four-fifth of the members of the Legislative Councils should be elected and one-fifth should be nominated.
7. The strength of Provincial legislative should not be less than 125 in the major provinces and from 50 to 75 in the minor provinces.
8. All members, except those nominated, were to be elected directly on the basis of adult franchise.
9. No bill concerning a community should be passed if the bill is opposed by three-fourth of the members of that community in the Legislative Council.
10. Term of the Legislative Council should be five years.
11. Members of Legislative Council should themselves elect their president.
12. Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Council should be Indians.
13. Indian Council must be abolished.
14. The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British Government and not from Indian funds.
15. Out of two Under Secretaries, one should be Indian.
16. The Executive should be separated from the Judiciary. Although this Hindu Muslim Unity was not able to live for more than eight years, and collapsed after the development of differences between the two communities after the Khilafat Movement, yet it was an important event in the history of the Muslims of South Asia. It was the first time when Congress recognized the Muslim League as the political party representing the Muslims of the region. As Congress agreed to separate electorates, it in fact agreed to consider the Muslims as a separate nation. They thus accepted the concept of the Two-Nation Theory
 

Essay css Paper 2010

Essay Paper 2010
 
01. Literature is the best criticism of life.

02. Dialogue is the best course to combat terrorism.

03. Pakistan is rich in natural resources but very poor in their management.

04. The U.N.O has failed to measure up to the demands of its charter.

05. All humans are born equal in dignity and rights but htey are in shackles everywhere.

06. Why is there no status of the third gender in Pakistan?

07. Can women be equal to men in Pakistan?

08. Without independent truth-finding commission , accountability is unachievable.

09. Religion has done more harm than help to human relations in the world.

10. The world politics stands more derisive than it was ever before due to the specific imperialist designs.

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

LAND Natural RegionsRiversCoastlineMountain Peaks and Passes

LAND Natural RegionsRiversCoastlineMountain Peaks and Passes

I –INTRODUCTION

Pakistan, officially Islamic Republic of Pakistan, republic in South Asia, marking the area where South Asia converges with Southwest Asia and Central Asia. The capital of Pakistan is Islāmābād; Karāchi is the country’s largest city.

The area of present-day
Pakistan was the cradle of the earliest known civilization of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilization (2500?-1700 BC). The territory was part of the Mughal Empire from 1526 until the 1700s, when it came under British rule. Pakistan gained independence in August 1947. It initially comprised two parts, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which were separated by about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of territory within India. In December 1971 East Pakistan seceded and became the independent republic of Bangladesh.

II -LAND AND RESOURCES
Pakistan is bordered on the west by Iran, on the north and northwest by Afghanistan, on the northeast by China, on the east and southeast by India, and on the south by the Arabian Sea. A panhandle of Afghanistan territory in the northwest, the Wakhan Corridor, separates Pakistan and Tajikistan. The area of Pakistan is 796,095 sq km (307,374 sq mi), not including the section of Jammu and Kashmīr under its control. Jammu and Kashmīr is a disputed territory located between Pakistan and India. Pakistan controls a portion of the territory as Azad (Free) Kashmīr and the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA), while India controls a portion as the state of Jammu and Kashmīr.

A -Natural Regions
Pakistan has great extremes of elevation, reaching the highest point at the Himalayan peak of K2 (also known as Mount Godwin Austen) in the north and the lowest point at the Arabian Sea coast in the south. The
Indus River flows the length of Pakistan from north to south. The Indus and its tributaries form a wide river valley with fertile plains in Punjab and Sind (Sindh) provinces. Pakistan is mountainous in the north and west. Earthquakes are frequent, and occasionally severe, in the northern and western areas.
Much of
Pakistan is a dry, sun-scorched region. To the west of the Indus are the rugged dry mountains of the Sulaimān Range, which merge with the treeless Kīrthar Range in the south. Farther west are the arid regions of the Baluchistan Plateau and the Khārān Basin. A series of mostly barren low mountains and hills predominate in the western border areas. The Thar Desert straddles the border with India in the southeast.
The country also possesses a variety of wetlands, with the glacial lakes of the
Himalayas, the mudflats of the Indus Valley plains, and the extensive coastal mangroves of the Indus River delta. The wetland areas cover an estimated area of 7.8 million hectares (19.3 million acres).

B -Rivers
The Indus River is the lifeline of
Pakistan. Without the Indus and its tributaries, the land would have turned into a barren desert long ago. The Indus originates in Tibet from the glacial streams of the Himalayas and enters Pakistan in the northeast. It runs generally southwestward the entire length of Pakistan, about 2,900 km (1,800 mi), and empties into the Arabian Sea. The Indus and its tributaries provide water to two-thirds of Pakistan. The principal tributaries of the Indus are the Sutlej, Beās, Chenāb, Rāvi, and Jhelum rivers. In southwestern Punjab Province these rivers merge to form the Panjnad (“Five Rivers”), which then merges with the Indus to form a mighty river. As the Indus approaches the Arabian Sea, it spreads out to form a delta. Much of the delta is marshy and swampy. It includes 225,000 hectares (556,000 acres) of mangrove forests and swamps. To the west of the delta is the seaport of Karāchi; to the east the delta fans into the salt marshes known as the Rann of Kutch.

C -Coastline
The coastline of
Pakistan extends 1,050 km (650 mi) along the Arabian Sea. The Makran Coast Range forms a narrow strip of mountains along about 75 percent of the total coast length, or about 800 km (500 mi). These steep mountains rise to an elevation of up to 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Most of the coast is underdeveloped, with deserted beaches and only a few fishing villages.

D -
Mountain Peaks and Passes
Pakistan has within its borders some of the world’s highest and most spectacular mountains. In the northern part of the country, the Hindu Kush mountains converge with the Karakoram Range, a part of the Himalayan mountain system. Thirteen of the world’s 30 tallest peaks are in Pakistan. The tallest include K2 (also known as Mount Godwin Austen), the second highest peak in the world at 8,611 m (28,251 ft), in the Karakoram Range; Nanga Parbat (8,125 m/26,657 ft) in the Himalayas; and Tirich Mīr (7,690 m/25,230 ft) in the Hindu Kush.

Many mountain passes cross
Pakistan’s borders with Afghanistan and China. Passes crossing over the mountains bordering Afghanistan include the Khyber, Bolān, Khojak, Kurram, Tochi, and Gomal passes. The most well-known and well-traveled is the Khyber Pass in the northwest. It links Peshāwar in Pakistan with Jalālābād in Afghanistan, where it connects to a route leading to the Afghan capital of Kābul. It is the widest and lowest of all the mountain passes, reaching a maximum elevation of 1,072 m (3,517 ft). The route of the Bolān Pass links Quetta in Baluchistan Province with Kandahār in Afghanistan; it also serves as a vital link within Pakistan between Sind and Baluchistan provinces. Historically, the Khyber and Bolān passes were used as the primary routes for invaders to enter India from Central Asia, including the armies of Alexander the Great. Also historically significant is Karakoram Pass, on the border with China. For centuries it was part of the trading routes known as the Silk Road, which linked China and other parts of Asia with Europe.

E -Plants and Animals
The vegetation of
Pakistan varies with elevation, soil type, and precipitation. Forests are largely confined to the mountain ranges in the north, where coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar grow. The southern ranges of the Himalayas, which are of lower elevation, receive heavy rainfall and have dense forests of deodar, pine, poplar, and willow trees. The more arid Sulaimān and Salt mountain ranges are sparsely forested with a type of mulberry called shisham, a broad-leaved, deciduous tree. Dry-temperate vegetation, such as coarse grasses, scrub plants, and dwarf palm, predominates in the valleys of the North-West Frontier Province and the Baluchistan Plateau. The arid western hills are dotted with juniper, tamarisk (salt cedar), and pistachio trees. The area of Ziārat, Baluchistan, has juniper forests that are believed to be 5,000 years old; however, they are dwindling due to deforestation. Dry-tropical scrub and thorn trees are the predominant vegetation in the Indus River plain. Known as rakh, this vegetation is native to the region and can survive temperatures higher than 45°C (113°F). Riverine forests, found in the Indus floodplain, require six weeks of monsoon flooding to sustain them during the dry months. Irrigated tree plantations are found in Punjab and Sind. Mangrove forests in the coastal wetlands are an integral part of the marine food chain.

Animal life in
Pakistan includes deer, boar, bear, crocodile, and waterfowl. The wetlands provide an essential habitat for a number of important mammal species, including coated otter, Indus dolphin, fishing cat, hog deer, and wild boar. During the migration season, at least 1 million waterfowl representing more than 100 species visit the extensive deltas and wetlands of Pakistan. Pakistan’s rivers and coastal waters contain many types of freshwater and saltwater fish, including herring, mackerel, sharks, and shellfish.

Threatened or endangered species include the snow leopard, Marco Polo sheep, blue sheep, and ibex (a type of wild goat). These animals can still be found in remote and protected areas of the
Himalayas. The houbara bustard has been overhunted as a game bird in Pakistan and is officially protected.

F -Climate
The climate of
Pakistan varies widely, with sharp differences between the high mountains and low plains. The country experiences four seasons. In the mountainous regions of the north and west, temperatures fall below freezing during winter and are mild during summer. In the Indus plains, temperatures range between about 32° and 49°C (about 90° and 120°F) in summer, and the average in winter is about 13°C (about 55°F).

Mountainous areas receive most precipitation as heavy snowfall in winter. In other areas of
Pakistan, most precipitation comes with the summer monsoons during July and August. The summer monsoons are seasonal winds that bring torrential rainfall, breaking the hot, dry spell and providing much-needed relief. The rainfall is so heavy that it causes rivers in Punjab and Sind provinces to flood the lowland areas. Rainfall is scarce the rest of the year. Punjab Province has the most precipitation in the country, receiving more than 500 mm (20 in) per year. In contrast, the arid regions of the southeast (the Thar Desert in Sind) and southwest (Baluchistan) receive less than 125 mm (5 in) annually.

G -Natural Resources
More than 20 different types of minerals have been identified in
Pakistan, but few are of sufficient quality or quantity to be commercially exploited. Most mineral deposits are found in the mountainous regions. Pakistan’s exploited natural resources include coal, natural gas, petroleum, gypsum, limestone, chromite, iron ore, rock salt, and silica sand. Pakistan has extensive natural gas reserves, notably in the vicinity of Sui, Baluchistan, from where it is piped to most of the large cities of Pakistan. Petroleum is limited, but exploration for additional reserves holds promise. Most of the country’s coal is of poor quality. The Salt Range in Punjab Province has large deposits of pure salt. Only about 3.3 percent of Pakistan’s total land area is forested, and timber is in short supply.

H -Environmental Issues
The wetlands in
Pakistan are a precious resource. In an arid to semiarid environment, these ecosystems have tremendous value. People, domestic livestock, and wildlife depend on them for livelihood and survival. The wetlands are also a major source of food staples, livestock grazing and fodder, fuel wood, and irrigation water. However, the fragile wetland ecologies are threatened by poor conservation, over-exploitation, and urban and industrial pollution.Pakistan’s forests also are in urgent need of protection and conservation. The country has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. The primary causes of deforestation are population growth and settlement, lack of fuelwood alternatives, insect damage and diseases, forest fires, and lack of awareness about the importance of preservation.

In the 1970s the government of
Pakistan began making efforts to protect the country’s forests. It has created 14 national parks, covering a total area of 2,753,375 hectares (6,803,738 acres). The protected forests of the parks help prevent soil erosion. The parks are also wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves. Khunjerab National Park, established in 1975, is an important habitat sanctuary for a number of threatened or endangered species, including the snow leopard. It is one of the country’s most important alpine biodiversity regions. Located in the Himalayas, it is also one of the highest-altitude parks in the world at 5,000 m (16,000 ft). Most of the parks generally have no ecological basis, however, existing primarily as tourist attractions or for the preservation of game animals.Pakistan participates in the World Heritage Convention and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, and it has one designated biosphere preserve under the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Man and the Biosphere Program.

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