Founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Nirun-Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora, the saintly ruler of Sindh, it was named after the prophet Mohammed's son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar. It remained the capital of Sindh under the Talpur rulers who succeeded the Kalhoras till 1843 when, after the nearby battles of Miani and Dabo, it surrendered to the British, the capital was then transferred to Karachi.
Incorporated as a municipality in 1853, it is an important commercial and industrial center. Its economic activities include textile, sugar, cement, and hosiery mills, manufacturing of glass, soap, ice, paper, and plastics. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Ornamented silks, silver-work, gold-work and lacquer ware are also some of its exclusive products. Noteworthy antiquities include the tombs of the Kalhora and Talpur ruler, palaces of the former amirs of Sindh. Newly developed settlements and industrial estates surround the congested old city area. A noteworthy characteristic of this city is badgirs (wind-catchers) fixed to housetops to catch sea breezes during the hot summer season. A hospital, municipal gardens, zoo, sports stadium, and several literary societies are in the city. The University of Sindh with 32 affiliated colleges was founded in 1947 in Karachi and moved to Hyderabad in 1951, where it lies across the Indus. Other education needs are served by numerous government colleges, the Liaquat Medical College and specialized vocational institutions.
Its remained the capital of the emirate of sindh until the British general Sir Charles James Napier conquered Sindh in 1843. From 1947 to 1955 Hyderabad was the capital of Sindh Province; the new capital was shifted to Hyderabad. In 1766 the Kalhora ruler constructed a fort half a square km in area and still stands today. In 1843 the British arrived and defeated the Talpurs, Completing their Conquest of Sindh.
It's also a second largest city of Sindh Province. It has over 3 Million population. The city has one of the most interesting bazaars of the country, which is known to be the longest bazaar in Asia. There are two very well arranged ethnological museums in the city One The Sindh Museum and the other the Institute of Sindhology Museum. Both museums present an excellent portrait of cultural and tribal life of Sindh. The city is transit point for the tours from Karachi to the Interior of Sindh A visit to Kalhora Monuments close to the city gate is worth a visit, Mausoleums are beautifully decorated with glazed tiles and frescos. There are also two forts from 18th & 19th Century to see here.