First constitution was approved on 29th January 1956. The Governor General gave is assent on 2nd March and the new constitution was enforced on 23rd March, 1956 and
1. Nature of the Constitution:
The constitution of the
Under the constitution, there existed division of powers between the central and provincial governments in the form of three lists. One of the lists included the affairs on which central government was authorized to legislate, the second list dealt with provincial government’s jurisdiction, while the third one included all concurrent affairs on which both central as well as provincial governments could legislate.
3. Parliamentary System:
The form of government was modeled on parliamentary lines which had closer resemblance to the system as worked under 1935 Act of India. Under this system, all ministers were supposed to be the members of Parliament and they remained in office so long as they continued to command the confidence of the majority of the Assembly, otherwise, they had to resign. The Cabinet was collectively accountable to the National Assembly.
4. Uni-Cameral Legislature:
It is a common practice in almost all the federal states to introduce bicameral legislature in which the upper chamber is organized on the basis of parity of representation to all the federating units while the lower chamber is organized on popular basis. But in
The constitution ensured necessary safeguards to secure independence of judiciary. The judges of the superior courts were to be appointed by the head of the State and were ensured full security of service. They could not be removed prior to their retirement except through impeachment, nor their salaries diminished.
6. Directive Principles:
Directive principles of state policy were also incorporated in the constitution, a practice copied from Irish Constitution and contained in 1935 Act of India as well. Some of these principles dealt with Islamic teachings. It was also reaffirmed that
7. Fundamental Rights:
Fundamental rights were made the part of the constitution and were to be enforced by the Supreme Court. All such laws or administrative policies which violated Fundamental rights could be challenged in the Court of Law. Some important of these were: right to life, right to personal security, freedom of thought and action, of speech and expression, right of movement within the country, right to privacy and family life etc.
8. Islamic Provisions:
The constitution remains enforced for a period of two years only while it is too short period to test the utility of a constitution. As a matter of fact, the implementation of Constitution signifies the beginning of a new era of democracy but anti-state elements and disgruntled politicians were not sincere to this process and were bent upon sabotaging the system. Most of the politicians tried to seize political authority through back doors and indulged in political intrigues. Democratic norms were not paid due heed.
Elections could not be held under the new constitution and capturing of political power through palace intrigues became a routine affair. Nepotism, favoritism and selfishness shook the foundations of the political system. Undoubtedly, the situation became ripened for the intervention of military in politics. Martial Law was imposed in October 1958 and it was announced that parliamentary democracy had failed.