Sir Syed Ahmed khan 1817-1898 Aligarh Movement

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (17 Oct, 1817 – 27 Mar 1898)

• Got knowledge from Farid ud Din (maternal-grandfather – Ex Mughal PM)
• Got knowledge of Quran, Arabic, Persian, History, Maths and Medicine

Joined gov’t in 1839 – after father’s death – in a clerical job  1841 – promoted as Sub-Judge 1846 – transferred to Delhi  Chief judge in 1846  was offered an estate for services rendered to British during war 1857 but he rejected  1877 – member of imperial council 1886 – University of Edinburgh – LL.D degree 1888 – Knighthood

Educational Aspect of Aligarh Movement

Objective:

1. Modern education for Muslims to compete Hindus
2. Cooperation with the British government

1. Schools
• Muradabad (1859)
• Ghazipur (1863)
2. Scientific society at Gahazipur (1864)
• (to translate modern work from English to urdu and Persian)
• 1866 – Society published Aligarh Gazette (to arouse sentiments of goodwill & friendship)
• Muhammadan Educational Conference
• Established in 1866  held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques  Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members
3. Muhammadan Educational Conference
• Established in 1866 held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques  Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members
1869 – went to England, studied education system of Oxford & Cambridge
4. Anjuman-i-Taraqi-i-Musalmanan-i-Hind (1870)
• to impart modern knowledge to Muslims
5. Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College
On pattern of Oxford Fund raising committee formed 24th May, 1874, MAO High school established  1877 – got status of college  western, eastern and Islamic education  1920 – status of University

Political Aspects of Aligarh Movement

1. Muslims should avoid active politics
2. Sir Syed wrote “Risala-i-Asbab-Baghawqat-i-Hind

Causes of WOI 1857

1. Non representation of Indian in legislative councils
2. Conversion of Indian into Christianity
3. Mismanagement of Indian army
4. Ill advised measure of gov’t
Consequence: Indian membership in Act 1861
3. 1866 – Sir Syed formed British India Association at Aligarh – to express grievances of Indians to gov’t
4. wrote Loyal Muhammadans of India
5. Indian Patriotic Association 1888 – forum for those who did not join Congress
6. Muhammadan Political Association 1903 – Against Hindu Revivalist movements
a. Arya Smaj – Hindustan 1977
b. B G Tilak – Cow Slaughter
c. Shudhi -
d. Shangtahn -


Religious Services of Aligarh Movement

1. Wrote “Essay on the Life of Muhammad & Rebattle” in response to William Muire’s objectionable remarks in “Life of Muhammad”
2. Philosophical commentary “Tabaeen-al-Kalam” on bible – point out similarities
3. Influenced by MBA Wahab and Shah Ismail Shaheed – having positive attitude towards religion

Social services of Aligarh Movement


1. “Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq”  criticized conservative way of life and advised to adopt new trend
2. Established Orphanage houses
3. Founded Anjuman-i-Tariki-i-Urdu  protecting Urdu
4. Ahkam-i-Taham-i-Ahle-Kitab  Muslims can eat with Christians
Pioneer of two nation theory
• Advocate of Hindu Muslim unity
• Urdu Hindi controversy 1867 in Banaras, changed his views
• Shakespeare dialogue

Features of Aligarh

• Western & Eastern Education
• Islamic Education
• Residential College
• European and Indian staff
• Non-Muslim students
• Loyalist Disposition

Aligarh Movement after Sir Syed’s death

1. 1889 – Sir Syed proposed a trustee bill  Sir Syed as Sec. of the trust & Syed Mahmud (son) as joint sec.
2. After Sir Syed’s death (1898), Syed Mahmud as Sec.  was a weak manager  resigned
3. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk as new sec  devoted  deposited six lac Rs to gov’t  handled the conflict b/t two groups – Sahibzada Aftab Khan (in favor of European staff) & Muhammad Ali Johar  Died in 1907
4. Nwab Vaqar ul Malik took over tussle on European staff arouse  Nawab resigned in 1912 – health
5. Nwab Muhammad Ishaq Khan  deposited 20 lac for status of University  1919- college student played role in Tehrik e Khilafat

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