Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Problems of Pakistan after inndependence

Pakistan faced a large number of problems after its independence. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Ministe.

1. Boundary Distribution
A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff for distribution of Punjab and Bengal but he handed over some Muslims majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur and Junagarh. Kashimr problem is also the result of that unfair distribution.

2. Refugees  
Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.To settle them in Pakistan was a big problem but the leadership resolved it soon.

3. Division of  Assets
Pakistan received only 200 million. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.

4. Canal Water Dispute
Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. However on 9th September, 1960 on agreement called Indus Basin Treaty was signed between the two countries.

5. Kashmir Dispute
Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir’s total population was Muslim. But the India captured the area by force against Kashmir Muslims desire. Three wars have been taken between the two countries due to this issue. UNO has also not resolved this issue due to Indian aggression.

6. Constitutional Problems
The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution from 1947 to 1955. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.

7. Annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of some states remained undecided. The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November, 1947.
Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim leader Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to the applied by Indian Government and Mountbatten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.

8. Economic Problems
When Pakistan came into existence,agricultural,the major industries,the communication and transportation system,railways ets were in poor condition. The power resources in the two wings were scarce and negligible which were insufficient to meet the national Pakistan faced various economical problems.

9. Administrative Problems
The Government of Pakistan could not get enough time to set up workable administrative machinery because of the great difficulties created by Congress.The biggest administrative problem facing Pakistan was the acute shortage of competent and experienced personnel in the Central and Provincial Governments.


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