The Two-Nation Theory on the basis of which Pakistan came into being was first
presented by sir Syed Ahmad Khan in 1857. According to this theory the Muslims of India
considered themselves to be a separate nation from Hindus. However some questions in regard to
Two-Nation theory were still to be explained,like;
What was the ideological basis on which the Muslims should be considered a separate nation?
If they were separate nation then what was the nature of their allegiance to the Indian soil?
Were the factors that Hindus and Muslims had been living togather for centuries not strong enough
to merge the two communities into one nation?
These questios were answered by allama Iqbal in his presidential address delivered in the annual
meeting of All India Muslim league at Allahabad in december 1940.
Allama iqbal considered Islam as complete code of life. He said that i am fully convinced that
the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate state for themselves. He openly
negated the concept of natiion in india. On the occasion of a meeting of a cosmopolitan
organization he said;
"I have been myself of the view that religious differences should disappear from
this country and even now act on this principle in my private life. But now I think that the
preservation of their separate entities is desirable foe both the Hindus and the Muslims. The
vision of a common nationhood for India is a beautiful ideal and has a poetic appeal,but
lookig into the present conditions and the unconscious trends of the two communities appears
incapable of fulfilment."
Allama iqbal closely observed the political development in India and come to the
conclusion that both the communities cannot live togather peacefully and amicably. Thus he openly
"we suspect each others antentions and inwardly aim at dominating each other. Perhapes
in the higher intrest of mutual co-operation,we cannot afford to part with the monopolies which
the circumstance have placed in our hands and conceal our egoism under the cloak of nationalism,
outward simulating a large hearted patriotism but inwardly as narrow-minded as a caste or a
tribe. Perhapes we are unwilling to recognize that each group has a right to free development
according to its own cultural traditions."
In his allahabad presidential address he said;
"The various caste units and religious units in India have shown no inclination to
lose their individualities in a large whole. Each group is intensly jealous of its separate
existence. The formation of the kind of moral consciousness constitute the essence of a nation
is not possible in India."
Allama Iqbal defined the Muslims of India as a nation and suggested that there would
be no possibility of peace in the country unless and untill they were recognized as a nation.
Allama believed in the federal system and thoyght it as an ideal system for India. He said;
"A unitary form of government is inconcivable for India. The residuary powers must be
left to the self governing units. I would never like the muslims of India to agree on a system
which negates the principles of a true federation or fails to distinguish the as a separate
political unit. In this way only the Muslims of India will have maximum opportunities of
development and in return would be able to render best services for the defence of the country
against foreign invasion,be the invasion of ideas or of guns and bayonets."
Allama Iqbal expressed the Muslim sentiments and ideas in true spirit by defining
them as aseparate nation. His Presidential address washed away all the confusions from the muslim
minds and showed them new dimensions in their struggle for freedom. The spirit which allama Iqbal
infused in the Muslims developed into an ideological basis for the Pakistan movement. Thus ALLAMA
IQBAL was truly a great advocate of Two-Nation theory or Ideology of Pakistan.